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Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Hackers Could Decrypt Your GSM Phone Calls

Researchers have discovered a flaw in the GSM standard used by AT&T and T-Mobile that would allow hackers to listen in.
Source: Wired

How tech is transforming the intelligence industry

At a conference on the future challenges of intelligence organizations held in 2018, former Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats argued that he transformation of the American intelligence community must be a revolution rather than an evolution. The community must be innovative and flexible, capable of rapidly adopting innovative technologies wherever they may arise.

Intelligence communities across the Western world are now at a crossroads: The growing proliferation of technologies, including artificial intelligence, Big Data, robotics, the Internet of Things, and blockchain, changes the rules of the game. The proliferation of these technologies – most of which are civilian, could create data breaches and lead to backdoor threats for intelligence agencies. Furthermore, since they are affordable and ubiquitous, they could be used for malicious purposes.

The technological breakthroughs of recent years have led intelligence organizations to challenge the accepted truths that have historically shaped their endeavors. The hierarchical, compartmentalized, industrial structure of these organizations is now changing, revolving primarily around the integration of new technologies with traditional intelligence work and the redefinition of the role of the humans in the intelligence process.

Take for example Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) – a concept created by the intelligence community to describe information that is unclassified and accessible to the general public. Traditionally, this kind of information was inferior compared to classified information; and as a result, the investments in OSINT technologies were substantially lower compared to other types of technologies and sources. This is changing now; agencies are now realizing that OSINT is easy to acquire and more beneficial, compared to other – more challenging – types of information.

Yet, this understanding trickle down solely, as the use of OSINT by intelligence organizations still involves cumbersome processes, including slow and complex integration of unclassified and classified IT environments. It isn’t surprising therefore that intelligence executives – for example the Head of State Department’s Intelligence Arm or the nominee to become the Director of the National Reconnaissance Office – recently argued that one of the community’s grandest challenges is the quick and efficient integration of OSINT in its operations.

Indeed, technological innovations have always been central to the intelligence profession. But when it came to processing, analyzing, interpreting, and acting on intelligence, however, human ability – with all its limitations – has always been considered unquestionably superior. That the proliferation of data and data sources are necessitating a better system of prioritization and analysis, is not questionable. But who should have a supremacy? Humans or machines?

A man crosses the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) seal in the lobby of CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia, on August 14, 2008. (Photo: SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images)

Big data comes for the spy business

The discourse is tempestuous. Intelligence veterans claim that there is no substitute for human judgment. They argue that artificial intelligence will never be capable of comprehending the full spectrum of considerations in strategic decision-making, and that it cannot evaluate abstract issues in the interpretation of human behavior. Machines can collect data and perhaps identify patterns, but they will never succeed in interpreting reality as do humans. Others also warn of the ethical implications of relying on machines for life-or-death situations, such as a decision to go to war.

In contrast, techno-optimists claim that human superiority, which defined intelligence activities over the last century, is already bowing to technological superiority. While humans are still significant, their role is no longer exclusive, and perhaps not even the most important in the process. How can the average intelligence officer cope with the ceaseless volumes of information that the modern world produces?

From 1995 to 2016, the amount of reading required of an average US intelligence researcher, covering a low-priority country, grew from 20,000 to 200,000 words per day. And that is just the beginning. According to forecasts, the volume of digital data that humanity will produce in 2025 will be ten times greater than is produced today. Some argue this volume can only be processed – and even analyzed – by computers.

Of course, the most ardent advocates for integration of machines into intelligence work are not removing human involvement entirely; even the most skeptical do not doubt the need to integrate artificial intelligence into intelligence activities. The debate centers on the question of who will help whom: machines in aid of humans or humans in aid of machines.

Most insiders agree that the key to moving intelligence communities into the 21st century lies in breaking down inter- and intra-organizational walls, including between
the services within the national security establishment; between the public sector, the private sector, and academia; and between intelligence services of different countries.

It isn’t surprising therefore that the push toward technological innovation is a part of the current intelligence revolution. The national security establishment already recognizes that the private sector and academia are the main drivers of technological innovation.

Alexander Karp, chief executive officer and co-founder of Palantir Technologies Inc., walks the grounds after the morning sessions during the Allen & Co. Media and Technology Conference in Sun Valley, Idaho, U.S., on Thursday, July 7, 2016. Billionaires, chief executive officers, and leaders from the technology, media, and finance industries gather this week at the Idaho mountain resort conference hosted by investment banking firm Allen & Co. Photographer: David Paul Morris/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Private services and national intelligence

In the United States there is dynamic cooperation between these bodies and the security community, including venture capital funds jointly owned by the government and private companies.

Take In-Q-Tel – a venture capital fund established 20 years ago to identify and invest in companies that develop innovative technology which serves the national security of the United States, thus positioning the American intelligence community at the forefront of technological development. The fund is an independent corporation, which is not subordinate to any government agency, but it maintains constant coordination with the CIA, and the US government is the main investor.

It’s most successful endeavor, which has grown to become a multi-billion company though somewhat controversial, is Palantir, a data-integration and knowledge management provider. But there are copious other startups and more established companies, ranging from sophisticated chemical detection (e.g. 908devices), automated language translations (e.g. Lilt), and digital imagery (e.g. Immersive Wisdom) to sensor technology (e.g. Echodyne), predictive analytics (e.g. Tamr) and cyber security (e.g. Interset).

Actually, a significant part of intelligence work is already being done by such companies, small and big. Companies like Hexagon, Nice, Splunk, Cisco and NEC offer intelligence and law enforcement agencies a full suite of platforms and services, including various analytical solutions such as video analytics, identity analytics, and social media analytics . These platforms help agencies to obtain insights and make predictions from the collected and historic data, by using real-time data stream analytics and machine learning. A one-stop-intelligence-shop if you will.

Another example of government and non-government collaboration is the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) – a nonprofit organization which reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Established in 2006, IARPA finances advanced research relevant to the American intelligence community, with a focus on cooperation between academic institutions and the private sector, in a broad range of technological and social sciences fields. With a relatively small annual operational budget of around $3bn, the fund gives priority to multi-year development projects that meet the concrete needs of the intelligence community. The majority of the studies supported by the fund are unclassified and open to public scrutiny, at least until the stage of implementation by intelligence agencies.

Image courtesy of Bryce Durbin/TechCrunch

Challenging government hegemony in the intelligence industry 

These are all exciting opportunities; however, the future holds several challenges for intelligence agencies:

First, intelligence communities lose their primacy over collecting, processing and disseminating data. Until recently, the organizations Raison D’etre was, first and foremost, to obtain information about the enemy, before said enemy could disguise that information.

Today, however, a lot of information is available, and a plethora of off-the-shelf tools (some of which are free) allow all parties, including individuals, to collect, process and analyze vast amounts of data. Just look at IBM’s i2 Analyst’s Notebook, which gives analysts, for just few thousand dollars, multidimensional visual analysis capabilities so they can quickly uncover hidden connections and patterns in data. Such capacities belonged, just until recently, only to governmental organizations.

A second challenge for intelligence organizations lies in the nature of the information itself and its many different formats, as well as in the collection and processing systems, which are usually separate and lacking standardization. As a result, it is difficult to merge all of the available information into a single product. For this reason, intelligence organizations are developing concepts and structures which emphasize cooperation and decentralization.

The private market offers a variety of tools for merging information; ranging from simple off-the-shelf solutions, to sophisticated tools that enable complex organizational processes. Some of the tools can be purchased and quickly implemented – for example, data and knowledge sharing and management platforms – while others are developed by the organizations themselves to meet their specific needs.

The third challenge relates to the change in the principle of intelligence prioritization. In the past, the collection of information about a given target required a specific decision to do so and dedicated resources to be allocated for that purpose, generally at the expense of allocation of resources to a different target. But in this era of infinite quantities of information, almost unlimited access to information, advanced data storage capabilities and the ability to manipulate data, intelligence organizations can now collect and store information on a massive scale, without the need to immediately process it – rather, it may be processed as required.

This development leads to other challenges, including: the need to pinpoint the relevant information when required; to process the information quickly; to identify patterns and draw conclusions from mountains of data; and to make the knowledge produced accessible to the consumer. It is therefore not surprising that most of the technological advancements in the intelligence field respond to these challenges, bringing together technologies such as big data with artificial intelligence, advanced information storage capabilities and advanced graphical presentation of information, usually in real time.

Lastly, intelligence organizations are built and operate according to concepts developed at the peak of the industrial era, which championed the principle of the assembly line, which are both linear and cyclical. The linear model of ​​the intelligence cycle – collection, processing, research, distribution and feedback from the consumer – has become less relevant. In this new era, the boundaries between the various intelligence functions and between the intelligence organizations and their eco-system are increasingly blurred.

 

The brave new world of intelligence

A new order of intelligence work is therefore required, and therefore intelligence organizations are currently in the midst of a redefinition process. Traditional divisions – e.g. between collection and research; internal security organizations and positive intelligence; and public and private sectors – all become obsolete. This is not another attempt to carry out structural reforms: there is a sense of epistemological rupture which requires a redefinition of the discipline, the relationships that intelligence organizations have with their environments – from decision makers to the general public – and the development of new structures and conceptions.

And of course, there are even wider concerns; legislators need to create a legal framework that accurately incorporates the assessments based on data in a way that takes the predictive aspects of these technologies into account and still protects the privacy and security rights of individual citizens in nation states that have a respect for those concepts.

Despite the recognition of the profound changes taking place around them, today’s intelligence institutions are still built and operate in the spirit of Cold War conceptions. In a sense, intelligence organizations have not internalized the complexity that characterizes the present time – a complexity which requires abandoning the dichotomous (within and outside) perception of the intelligence establishment, as well as the understanding of the intelligence enterprise and government bodies as having a monopoly on knowledge; concepts that have become obsolete in an age of decentralization, networking and increasing prosperity.

Although some doubt the ability of intelligence organizations to transform and adapt themselves to the challenges of the future, there is no doubt that they must do so in this era in which speed and relevance will determine who prevails.


Source: TechCrunch

A Remote-Start App Exposed Thousands of Cars to Hackers

The bugs could have let an industrious hacker locate cars, unlock them, and start them up from anywhere with an internet connection.
Source: Wired

Telegram introduces a feature to prevent users from texting too often in a group

Telegram, a popular instant messaging app, has introduced a new feature to give group admins on the app better control over how members engage, the latest in a series of interesting features it has rolled out in recent months to expand its appeal.

The feature, dubbed Slow Mode, allows a group administrator to dictate how often a member could send a message in the group. If implemented by a group, members who have sent a text will have to wait between 30 seconds to as long as an hour before they can say something again in that group.

telegram slow mode groups

The messaging platform, which had more than 200 million monthly active users as of early 2018, said the new feature was aimed at making conversations in groups “more orderly� and raising the “value of each individual message.� It suggested admins to “keep [the feature] on permanently, or toggle as necessary to throttle rush hour traffic.�

Tech platforms including WhatsApp are grappling with containing the spread of misinformation on their messaging services. Though Telegram has largely been immune to such controversies, it has its fair share of issues.

WhatsApp has enforced limits on how often a user could forward a text message and is using machine learning techniques to weed out fraudulent users during the sign up procedure itself.

Shivnath Thukral, Director of Public Policy for Facebook in India and South Asia, said at a conference this month that virality of content has dropped by 25% to 30% on WhatsApp since the messaging platform imposed limits on forwards.

Telegram isn’t marketing the “Slow Mode� as a way to tackle the spread of false information, though. Instead, it says the feature would give users more “peace of mind.� Indeed, unlike WhatsApp, which allows up to 256 users to be part of a group, up to a whopping 200,000 users can join a Telegram group.

On a similar tone, Telegram has also added an option that will enable users to send a message without invoking a sound notification at the recipient’s end. “Simply hold the Send button to have any message or media delivered without sound,â€� the app maker said. “Your recipient will get a notification as usual, but their phone won’t make a sound – even if they forgot to enable the Do Not Disturb mode.â€�

Telegram has also introduced a range of other small features such as the ability for group owners to add custom titles for admins. Videos on the app now display thumbnail previews when a user scrubs through them, making it easier to them to find the right moment. Like YouTube, users on Telegram too can now share a video that jumps directly at a certain timestamp. Users can also animate their emojis now — if they are into that sort of thing.

In June, Telegram introduced a number of location-flavored features to allow users to quickly exchange contact details without needing to type in digits.


Source: TechCrunch

Space Photos of the Week: Jupiter’s Big Storm Is Blowing Over

Plus, solar eclipses are a key opportunity for scientists.
Source: Wired

Kobalt, Apple and smartwatches, Hadoop, customer support, and social work and AI

The Kobalt EC-1: How a Swedish saxophonist built Kobalt, the world’s next music unicorn

My favorite pieces we host on Extra Crunch are our EC-1 series of in-depth profiles and analyses of high-flying, fascinating startups. We launched Extra Crunch with a multi-part series on Patreon, and then we covered augmented reality and Pokémon Go creator Niantic and gaming platform Roblox.

This week, Extra Crunch media columnist Eric Peckham launched the first part of his three-part EC-1 series looking at music “operating system� startup Kobalt. Kobalt is not perhaps a popular household name like Roblox, but it’s influence is heard pretty much every single time you listen to music. Kobalt is upending the traditional infrastructure to track music plays to capture royalties for artists, an industry that today still involves people literally walking into bars and writing down what’s playing. From that base, Kobalt wants to expand into services to empower the next-generation of stars and mid-market talent.

What I loved about this story is that not only is Kobalt completely rebuilding an otherwise stagnant industry, but its founder and CEO is also such a dynamic individual. Willard Ahdritz was a former saxophonist whose band was essentially abandoned by their music label — even while that label wouldn’t give up the economics that would allow the band to continue (some founders may have similar experiences with their venture investors). Ahdritz would eventually start his own music label called Telegram, and a bit later started Kobalt to solve the problems he kept running into on the music publishing side.

It’s been almost two decades, but today, Kobalt offers a suite of technologies and services and has its crosshairs on the big three labels — Universal, Sony, and Warner. It’s also raised a boatload of venture capital and is closing in on a unicorn valuation. Read the full story, learn more about this analytically fascinating business, and get ready for parts two and three coming soon.

Refer a friend to Extra Crunch


Source: TechCrunch

We’re all doomed, 2019 edition

Every year the great and good (and bad) of the hacker/information-security world descend on Las Vegas for a week of conferences, in which many present their latest discoveries, and every year I try to itemize the most interesting (according to me) Black Hat talks for TechCrunch. Do not assume I attended all or even most of these. There are far too many for anyone to attend. But hopefully they’ll give you a sense of the state of the art.

First, though, let me just note that this post title is intended as sardonic. Yes, there is a lot of sloppy software out there, and yes, a lot of smart people keep finding holes, bugs, exploits, and design flaws even in good software, but we are not actually all doomed, and the belief that we are, and that anything connected to the Internet can be and probably has been hacked — an attitude which I like to call “security nihilism” — is spectacularly counterproductive.

In truth there is a lot of extremely good security out there, especially amid the big tech companies, and it keeps getting better, as the market for 0-days (previously undiscovered exploits) indicates. Most (though certainly not all) of the exploits below have already been reported and fixed, and patches have been rolled out. That said, much of the world has a lot of work to do to catch up with, say, Apple and Google’s security teams. Without further ado, the best-sounding talks of 2019:


Liveness Detection Hacking, from Tencent’s Xuanwu Security Lab, discusses how to trick “liveness” detectors for face or voice ID (or, perhaps, cryptocurrency KYC) by injecting fake video or audio streams, or, better yet, ordinary glasses with ordinary tape attached, which, best of all, they have named X-glasses.


All the 4G Modules Could Be Hacked, from Baidu’s Security Lab, recounts the researchers’ investigation of 4G modules for IoT devices — the components which connect machines to the Internet via cell networks, basically. As their summary memorably puts it, “We carried out this initiative and tested all the major brand 4G modules in the market (more than 15 different types). The results show all of them have similar vulnerabilities” and ends with the equally memorable “how to use these vulnerabilities to attack car entertainment systems of various brands and get remote control of cars.” Extra points for the slide with ‘Build Zombie cars (just like Furious 8)’, too.


Arm IDA and Cross Check: Reversing the Boeing 787’s Core Network by Ruben Santamarta of IOActive talks about how, after discovering an accidentally public directory of sensitive Boeing information online(!), Santamarta developed a chain of exploits that could conceivably lead from the Internet to the “Common Data Network” of a 787. Boeing strongly disputes this.

I have considerable respect for Santamarta, whose work I’ve written about before, and as he put it: “Boeing communicated to IOActive that there are certain built-in compiler-level mitigations [author’s note: !!] that, in their point of view, prevent these vulnerabilities from being successfully exploited. IOActive was unable to locate or validate the existence of those mitigations in the CIS/MS firmware version we analyzed. When asked, Boeing declined to answer whether these mitigations might have been added on a later version … We hope that a determined, highly capable third party can safely confirm that these vulnerabilities are not exploitable … We are confident owners and operators of these aircraft would welcome such independent validation and verification.” Indeed. But hey, if you can’t trust Boeing, who can you trust, right?


Reverse Engineering WhatsApp Encryption for Chat Manipulation, from researchers at Check Point Software, described how to abuse WhatsApp group chat to put words into others’ mouths, albeit only in quote texts, and send private messages which look like group-chat messages. (Note however that this is post-decryption, so you have to already be a legitimate member of the chat.)


In Behind the scenes of iOS and Mac Security, Ivan Krstić, Apple’s Head of Security Engineering, publicly spoke about Apple security. That’s remarkable enough right there! In particular, it’s worth noting his exegesis of how Find My works while preserving privacy, and that Apple is going to start to offer rooted iPhones to security researchers.


Simultaneously, an organization almost as devoted to secrecy as Apple revealed more about their security practices too. Kudos! I refer of course to the NSA, who came onstage to discuss their reverse-engineering framework Ghidra, and how it came to be open-sourced.


In Critical Zero Days Remotely Compromise the Most Popular Real-Time OS, researchers from Armis Security explained how VxWorks, a real-time OS you’ve never heard of but which runs on over 2 billion machines including aircraft, medical devices, industrial control systems, and spacecraft, also boasts vulnerabilities in esoteric corners of its TCP/IP stack that could lead to remote code execution. So that’s not good.


Finally, in Exploring the New World : Remote Exploitation of SQLite and Curl, Tencent’s Blade Team (yes, Chinese researchers have been absolutely killing it this year) showed how we actually are all doomed. I kid, I kid. But while you’ve probably never heard of them, SQLite and Curl are two absolutely fundamental software components — an incredibly widely used compact single-file database and a command-line networking tool, respectively — and used an exploit of the former to successfully remote attack Google Home, and the latter to attack curl clients such as PHP/Apache as well as Git. Ouch.


Source: TechCrunch

Are Sci-Fi Movies Getting Too Pretentious?

The films are generally known for action, but recently sci-fi has gotten more profound. It might be too much.
Source: Wired

Election Systems Are Even More Vulnerable Than We Thought

Black Hat and Defcon are underway in Vegas, WhatsApp flaws allow hackers to alter messages, and more of this week’s top security news.
Source: Wired

How 'Microcracks' Undermined San Francisco's New Bus Terminal

A cracked beam forced the $2.2 billion terminal’s closure after six weeks. Unraveling why required physics, metallurgy, and engineers with nerves of steel.
Source: Wired

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