• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

After Epstein, it’s time for the Valley to find a moral view on capital

Is capital moral or amoral?

In the predominant view held in Silicon Valley today, capital is amoral — cash is cash, and regardless of where it comes from, once it leaves the hand of its investor or donor, it no longer has that individual’s taint. That money might have previously been spent on acquiring access to underage girls, or murder, or espionage, but now it is being spent on something productive, something useful. Isn’t that ultimately a net win for society?

That culture of fundraising is under an exacting microscope this week after the MIT Technology Review reported that Nicholas Negroponte, the founder of the famed MIT Media Lab, would have continued to take convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein’s donations to the research center.

[… He] said he had recommended that [Joichi Ito, the lab’s current director] take Epstein’s money. “If you wind back the clock,� he added, “I would still say, ‘Take it.’� And he repeated, more emphatically, “‘Take it.’�

The comments, made during a meeting of the lab’s staff, shocked many of the participants, with some angrily replying in the heat of the moment. As the Review noted, “Kate Darling, a research scientist at the MIT Media Lab, shouted, ‘Nicholas, shut up!’ Negroponte responded that he would not shut up and that he had founded the Lab, to which Darling said, ‘We’ve been cleaning up your messes for the past eight years.’�

Epstein funded projects widely in the tech world through the Edge Foundation and other initiatives, and his acquaintances read like a who’s-who of tech luminaries.

Yet, this week’s controversy over fundraising is hardly novel. Just last year, SoftBank’s Vision Fund was dealing with the fallout in its own fundraising after Saudi Arabia — the fund’s largest limited partner with a $45 billion commitment to the $93 billion fund — murdered journalist Jamal Khashoggi in its consulate in Istanbul.

These two singular cases also connect to the larger story about the U.S. government’s active shutdown of Chinese venture capital dollars flowing into the Valley for fear of foreign intelligence espionage. Through the modernization of legal tools like CFIUS, to the Pentagon’s creation of a Trusted Capital Marketplace, to reversals of acquisitions like the unwinding of Chinese company Kunlun’s purchase of gay dating app Grindr, the government has repeatedly been telling entrepreneurs: it matters where your capital comes from.

Indeed, that’s the very quandary that Silicon Valley is facing these days. Its amoral view of capital is increasingly clashing with the reality that it matters a whole heck of a lot where that capital comes from. And it is about time that founders and investors take responsibility for cleaning up a capital base that has become more and more squalid over time.

Why can’t capital just be immoral? Well, Epstein’s web of donations provided him with a philanthropic sheen that eased access to the highest echelons of society while he committed his crimes. Saudi Arabia is the largest investor in Silicon Valley not only because it drives a return and diversifies its oil-dependent economy, but also because it can Valley-wash the horrific rights abuses and atrocities it commits against all of its citizens, including women, LGBT people, and immigrants.

(But hey, women can drive now, just in time for autonomous vehicles.)

This amoral versus moral view of capital is just the classic debate in philosophy between utilitarianism versus deontological duties, but Silicon Valley has almost exclusively chosen the former rather than the latter. My bank asks me more questions about my $50 deposits than many founders ask about where that $500 million check comes from.

That’s perhaps understandable in context. Founders — as with non-profit leaders — fundraise around-the-clock. When a check finally arrives, they don’t bother to ask a bunch of due diligence questions. They just want that money to hit the bank and get back to building what they were intending to the entire time.

It’s a mode of operating that continues to the present day. I was chatting with a founder this week, and during demo day last week, he got an emailed check for $50,000 from an investor in the audience. It was amazing, he said with exclamation points to me, and it sounded like he just added the check to the pile he had accumulated. Who is this person? Do we know where his capital comes from? Is there going to be some scandal that shocks the startup in a couple of years? Yet the excitement was palpable — the round was closed, and it was the easiest $50,000 ever fundraised.

Those diligence questions probably didn’t need to be asked a decade or two in the Valley, back when a few dozen firms mostly raised from blue-chip university and non-profit endowments as well as state pension funds.

Today though, there are all kinds of sources of capital, with little clarity about where the capital is coming from. Take, for instance, Carlos Ghosn, who once headed Nissan Motors and is currently on trial in Japan for a variety of financial crimes. He has been accused of embezzling millions of dollars for a VC fund run by his son by running a kickback scheme through a Nissan distributor in Lebanon. As the Wall Street Journal reported a little more than a week ago:

In March 2015, the Ghosns set up in Delaware an investment vehicle called Shogun Investments, which Mr. Ghosn described as a fund that would invest in Silicon Valley startups. Mr. Ghosn was majority owner while his son, Anthony, held a stake, according to people familiar with the matter. The younger Mr. Ghosn, who was about to graduate from Stanford University, was working at the time as chief of staff for Silicon Valley venture capitalist Joe Lonsdale, providing the elder Mr. Ghosn a close-up view of the tech investment world. The lofty returns had stunned him, according to one of the people.

That fund would go on to fund some of the most well-known unicorns in the world:

“Following our phone conversation, I ordered a transfer of $3 million,� Carlos Ghosn wrote in a December 2017 email to his son, who was 22 years old at the time.

Of that amount, $2 million was for an investment in Grab, a Southeast Asian competitor to Uber Technologies Inc., Mr. Ghosn wrote, adding that he was sending “$1 million for the company of your friend that you think will do very well.� It wasn’t clear which company Mr. Ghosn was referring to.

I would love a world in which founders asked all the right due diligence questions. I would love for them to inquire about limited partners, about how wealth was created, and how it has been invested. But I am also aware that in what can be a desperate search for funds, those questions may well never get asked in the first place.

If you want to stop the capital laundering taking place every day in the Valley, you have to create active, real-time antidotes. That means stopping it at every point of contact, every single opportunity where it can infect the ecosystem.

And so, we need better systems as a community and as an ecosystem to cleanse ourselves of this dirty money. We need “know-your-capital� processes that are standardized, robust, and accurate so that every check can be verified before it hits the bank. We need tools to verify that a startup or non-profit has actually followed those KYC processes, so that employees don’t suddenly show up at work and realize they are making money for a bunch of murderers. It’s “trust but verify.�

Systematization and process are key to execution, but that doesn’t disclaim the responsibility for the Valley’s leaders to take a moral stance here. Utilitarianism only takes you so far — it does matter that you take capital from a bad actor. Negroponte is wrong to say that he would still take Epstein’s money, regardless of what that capital might have funded at the MIT Media Lab.

Taking responsibility for your capital is part of being a leader of an organization today. Hopefully, the next generation of founders will take a look at Epstein, and Khashoggi, and China, and Ghosn, and the Sacklers, and a whole host of other case studies and learn from them and change their fundraising practices. A moral view on capital isn’t a cost of doing business — it’s simply the right thing to do.


Source: TechCrunch

The 2-in-1 Microsoft Surface Book 2 laptop gets a huge $300 discount on Amazon

Amazon’s discount makes the powerful and flexible 2-in-1 Microsoft Surface Book 2 more affordable than the best laptop in 2019.
Source: Digital trends

Original Content podcast: Amazon’s ‘Carnival Row’ mixes fairies, politics and murder

“Carnival Row” offers an unlikely mix of genres, laying out a murder mystery in a world of fairies and other mythical creatures, while also delivering a healthy dose of allegorical politics.

And as we explain in the latest episode of the Original Content podcast, the show (recently released on Amazon Prime Video) does take some getting used to. There’s a certain clumsiness in the way the opening episode insists on its grittiness and adult themes — and most viewers will probably need some time before they stop gawking at the fairy sex and focus instead on the story and characters.

Once they do, though, “Carnival Row” offers plenty of rewards. Orlando Bloom and Cara Delevingne star as Philo and Vignette — a police investigator and a “fae” refugee, respectively, who have a complicated romantic past together. Bloom and Delevingne may not be entirely up to the task of creating complex and memorable characters, but the world that creators Travis Beacham and René Echavarria have built around them is rich, detailed and strange.

The pair is also surrounded by a strong supporting cast that includes Jared Harris (“The Crown”) and Indira Varma (“Game of Thrones”) — and ultimately, the fantasy, the politics and the mystery do come together in satisfying ways.

In addition to reviewing “Carnival Row,” we also discuss YouTube’s settlement with the FTC and listener response to last week’s review of “The Dark Crystal: Age of Resistance.”

You can listen in the player below, subscribe using Apple Podcasts or find us in your podcast player of choice. If you like the show, please let us know by leaving a review on Apple. You can also send us feedback directly. (Or suggest shows and movies for us to review!)

And if you want to skip ahead, here’s how the episode breaks down:
0:00 Introduction
2:11 “Dark Crystal: Age of Resistance” listener response
15:03 “Carnival Row” review (minor spoilers for the first episode)
33:47 “Carnival Row” spoiler discussion


Source: TechCrunch

Amazon drops a big $480 discount on the Samsung Notebook 9 15-inch laptop

Amazon’s 36% discount drops the lightweight Samsung Notebook 9 15-inch laptop down to $830 from its usual $1,300.
Source: Digital trends

Wikipedia blames malicious DDOS attack after site goes down across Europe, Middle East

Wikipedia was forced offline in several countries Friday after a cyber attack hit the global encyclopedia.

Users across Europe and parts of the Middle East experienced outages shortly before 7pm, BST, according to downdetector.com.

Wikimedia’s German Twitter account posted: “The Wikimedia server…is currently being paralysed by a massive and very broad DDOS [distributed denial of service] attack.â€�

The site issued the following statement:

Today, Wikipedia was hit with a malicious attack that has taken it offline in several countries for intermittent periods. The attack is ongoing and our Site Reliability Engineering team is working hard to stop it and restore access to the site.

As one of the world’s most popular sites, Wikipedia sometimes attracts “bad faith� actors. Along with the rest of the web, we operate in an increasingly sophisticated and complex environment where threats are continuously evolving. Because of this, the Wikimedia communities and Wikimedia Foundation have created dedicated systems and staff to regularly monitor and address risks. If a problem occurs, we learn, we improve, and we prepare to be better for next time.

We condemn these sorts of attacks. They’re not just about taking Wikipedia offline. Takedown attacks threaten everyone’s fundamental rights to freely access and share information. We in the Wikimedia movement and Foundation are committed to protecting these rights for everyone.

Right now, we’re continuing to work to restore access wherever you might be reading Wikipedia in the world. We’ll keep you posted.�

The site was reported to be down in large parts of the UK as well as Poland, France, Germany and Italy.


Source: TechCrunch

What top enterprise VCs are thinking, using data effectively, ethics, Light, and Flipkart

Top VCs on the changing landscape for enterprise startups

TechCrunch had our debut confab for enterprise types this week at Yerba Buena Center in SF, where we heard from Aaron Levie, CEO of Box, Apple VP Susan Prescott of Apple, and Microsoft Azure CTO Mark Russinovich. We were sold out, which perhaps isn’t all that surprising given the amount of interest in enterprise these days. Expect more events to come.

Our Silicon Valley editor Connie Loizos hosted a panel with leading enterprise VCs, and she selected the most interesting points from that conversation and from her calls with them for Extra Crunch members. Hear a bit from Jason Green of Emergence Capital, Rebecca Lynn of Canvas Ventures and Maha Ibrahim of Canaan Partners and what they are investing in these days.

And if you want to hear even more from Jason Green and yours truly, head over to TechCrunch’s VC podcast Equity, where we shot live from Yerba Buena along with host Kate Clark with a special focus on enterprise startups.

Maha Ibrahim: I feel like people are focusing too much on metrics and not as much on [the total addressable market]. We make money [when a startup strikes on a] huge, huge market.

But there’s [also] so much correlation between consumer and enterprise startups in that we want customers that love the product. We want customers that come back and come back and come back to us, without us having to pay for them to come back. So the equivalent in a consumer company would be me having to spend advertising dollars to acquire that customer again, as opposed to that customer just coming back because he or she loves what I’m doing. The same goes for the enterprise.

How early-stage startups can use data effectively

Silicon Valley may be obsessed with using data to improve startup outcomes, but the reality is quite a bit more nuanced. Koen Bok, co-founder of interactive design tool Framer, has put together an extensive guide here on how to to use data — and when not to.


Source: TechCrunch

An Unprecedented Cyberattack Hit the US Power Grid

Exposed Facebook phone numbers, an XKCD breach, and more of the week’s top security news.
Source: Wired

Space Photos of the Week: Hurricane Dorian and Other Spirals

It’s a universal shape, and we find it throughout the cosmos.
Source: Wired

Is It OK to Change Hurricane Forecasts With a Sharpie Doodle?

A physicist wades into the dreaded “cone of uncertainty” surrounding White House weather advisories.
Source: Wired

Everyone Should Celebrate Their Love for Dungeons & Dragons

It took author Matt Bell a while to get there, but now he encourages everyone to do the same.
Source: Wired

123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527528529530531532533534535536537538539540541542543544545546547548549550551552553554555556557558559560561562563564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585586587588589590591592593594595596597598599600601602603604605606607608609610611612613614615616617618619620621622623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667668669670671672673674675676677678679680681682683684685686687688689690691692693694695696697698699700701702703704705706707708709710711712713714715716717718719720721722723724725726727728729730731732733734735736737738739740741742743744745746747748749750751752753754755756757758759760761762763764765766767768769770771772773774775776777778779780781782783784785786787788789790791792793794795796797798799800801802803804805806807808809810811812813814815816817818819820821822823824825826827828829830831832833834835836837838839840841842843844845846847848849850851852853854855856857858859860861862863864865866867868869870871872873874875876877878879880881882883884885886887888889890891892893894895896897898899900901902903904905906907908909910911912913914915916917918919920921922923924925926927928929930931932933934935936937938939940941942943944945946947948949950951952953954955956957958959960961962963964965966967968969970971972973974975976977978979980981982983984985986987988989990991992993994995996997998999100010011002100310041005100610071008100910101011101210131014101510161017101810191020102110221023102410251026102710281029103010311032103310341035103610371038103910401041104210431044104510461047104810491050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701071107210731074107510761077107810791080108110821083108410851086108710881089109010911092109310941095109610971098109911001101110211031104110511061107110811091110111111121113111411151116111711181119112011211122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311541155115611571158115911601161116211631164116511661167116811691170117111721173117411751176117711781179118011811182118311841185118611871188118911901191119211931194119511961197119811991200120112021203120412051206120712081209121012111212121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245124612471248124912501251125212531254125512561257125812591260126112621263126412651266126712681269127012711272127312741275127612771278127912801281128212831284128512861287128812891290129112921293129412951296129712981299130013011302130313041305130613071308130913101311131213131314131513161317131813191320132113221323132413251326132713281329133013311332133313341335133613371338133913401341134213431344134513461347134813491350135113521353135413551356135713581359136013611362136313641365136613671368136913701371137213731374137513761377137813791380138113821383138413851386138713881389139013911392139313941395139613971398139914001401140214031404140514061407140814091410141114121413141414151416141714181419142014211422142314241425142614271428142914301431143214331434143514361437143814391440144114421443144414451446144714481449145014511452145314541455145614571458145914601461146214631464146514661467146814691470147114721473147414751476147714781479148014811482148314841485148614871488148914901491149214931494149514961497149814991500150115021503150415051506150715081509151015111512151315141515151615171518151915201521152215231524152515261527152815291530153115321533153415351536153715381539154015411542154315441545154615471548154915501551155215531554155515561557155815591560156115621563156415651566156715681569157015711572157315741575157615771578157915801581158215831584158515861587158815891590159115921593159415951596159715981599160016011602160316041605160616071608160916101611161216131614161516161617161816191620162116221623162416251626162716281629163016311632163316341635163616371638163916401641164216431644164516461647164816491650165116521653165416551656165716581659166016611662166316641665166616671668166916701671167216731674167516761677167816791680168116821683168416851686168716881689169016911692169316941695169616971698169917001701170217031704170517061707170817091710171117121713171417151716171717181719172017211722172317241725172617271728172917301731173217331734173517361737173817391740174117421743174417451746174717481749175017511752175317541755175617571758175917601761176217631764176517661767176817691770177117721773177417751776177717781779178017811782178317841785178617871788178917901791179217931794179517961797179817991800180118021803180418051806180718081809181018111812181318141815181618171818181918201821182218231824182518261827182818291830183118321833183418351836183718381839184018411842184318441845184618471848184918501851185218531854185518561857185818591860186118621863186418651866186718681869187018711872187318741875187618771878187918801881188218831884188518861887188818891890189118921893189418951896189718981899190019011902190319041905190619071908190919101911191219131914191519161917191819191920192119221923192419251926192719281929193019311932193319341935193619371938193919401941194219431944194519461947194819491950195119521953195419551956195719581959196019611962196319641965196619671968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022202320242025202620272028202920302031203220332034203520362037203820392040204120422043204420452046204720482049205020512052205320542055205620572058205920602061206220632064206520662067206820692070207120722073207420752076207720782079208020812082208320842085208620872088208920902091209220932094209520962097209820992100210121022103210421052106210721082109211021112112211321142115211621172118211921202121212221232124212521262127212821292130213121322133213421352136213721382139214021412142214321442145214621472148214921502151215221532154215521562157215821592160216121622163216421652166216721682169217021712172217321742175217621772178217921802181218221832184218521862187218821892190219121922193219421952196219721982199220022012202220322042205220622072208220922102211221222132214221522162217221822192220222122222223222422252226222722282229223022312232223322342235223622372238223922402241224222432244224522462247224822492250225122522253225422552256225722582259226022612262226322642265226622672268226922702271227222732274227522762277227822792280228122822283228422852286228722882289229022912292229322942295229622972298229923002301230223032304230523062307230823092310231123122313231423152316231723182319232023212322232323242325232623272328232923302331233223332334233523362337233823392340234123422343234423452346234723482349235023512352235323542355235623572358235923602361236223632364236523662367236823692370237123722373237423752376237723782379238023812382238323842385238623872388238923902391239223932394239523962397239823992400240124022403240424052406240724082409241024112412241324142415241624172418241924202421242224232424242524262427242824292430243124322433243424352436243724382439244024412442244324442445244624472448244924502451245224532454245524562457245824592460246124622463246424652466246724682469247024712472247324742475247624772478247924802481248224832484248524862487248824892490249124922493249424952496249724982499250025012502250325042505250625072508250925102511251225132514251525162517251825192520252125222523252425252526252725282529253025312532253325342535253625372538253925402541254225432544254525462547254825492550255125522553255425552556255725582559256025612562256325642565256625672568256925702571257225732574257525762577257825792580258125822583258425852586258725882589259025912592259325942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826092610261126122613261426152616261726182619262026212622262326242625262626272628262926302631263226332634263526362637263826392640264126422643264426452646264726482649265026512652265326542655265626572658265926602661266226632664266526662667266826692670267126722673267426752676267726782679268026812682268326842685268626872688268926902691269226932694269526962697269826992700270127022703270427052706270727082709271027112712271327142715271627172718271927202721272227232724272527262727272827292730273127322733273427352736273727382739274027412742274327442745274627472748274927502751275227532754275527562757275827592760276127622763276427652766276727682769277027712772277327742775277627772778277927802781278227832784278527862787278827892790279127922793279427952796279727982799280028012802280328042805280628072808280928102811281228132814281528162817281828192820282128222823282428252826282728282829283028312832283328342835283628372838283928402841284228432844284528462847284828492850285128522853285428552856285728582859286028612862286328642865286628672868286928702871287228732874287528762877287828792880288128822883288428852886288728882889289028912892289328942895289628972898289929002901290229032904290529062907290829092910291129122913291429152916291729182919292029212922292329242925292629272928292929302931293229332934293529362937293829392940294129422943294429452946294729482949295029512952295329542955295629572958295929602961296229632964296529662967296829692970297129722973297429752976297729782979298029812982298329842985298629872988298929902991299229932994299529962997299829993000300130023003300430053006300730083009301030113012301330143015301630173018301930203021302230233024302530263027302830293030303130323033303430353036303730383039304030413042304330443045304630473048304930503051305230533054305530563057305830593060306130623063306430653066306730683069307030713072307330743075307630773078307930803081308230833084308530863087308830893090309130923093309430953096309730983099310031013102310331043105310631073108310931103111311231133114311531163117311831193120312131223123312431253126312731283129313031313132313331343135313631373138313931403141314231433144314531463147314831493150315131523153315431553156315731583159316031613162316331643165316631673168316931703171317231733174317531763177317831793180318131823183318431853186318731883189319031913192319331943195319631973198319932003201320232033204320532063207320832093210321132123213321432153216321732183219322032213222322332243225322632273228322932303231323232333234323532363237323832393240324132423243324432453246324732483249325032513252325332543255325632573258325932603261326232633264326532663267326832693270327132723273327432753276327732783279328032813282328332843285328632873288328932903291329232933294329532963297329832993300330133023303330433053306330733083309331033113312331333143315331633173318331933203321332233233324332533263327332833293330333133323333333433353336333733383339334033413342334333443345334633473348334933503351335233533354335533563357335833593360336133623363336433653366336733683369337033713372337333743375337633773378337933803381338233833384338533863387338833893390339133923393339433953396339733983399340034013402340334043405340634073408340934103411341234133414341534163417341834193420342134223423342434253426342734283429343034313432343334343435343634373438343934403441344234433444344534463447344834493450345134523453345434553456345734583459346034613462346334643465346634673468346934703471347234733474347534763477347834793480348134823483348434853486348734883489349034913492349334943495349634973498349935003501350235033504350535063507350835093510351135123513351435153516351735183519352035213522352335243525352635273528352935303531353235333534353535363537353835393540354135423543354435453546354735483549355035513552355335543555355635573558355935603561356235633564356535663567356835693570357135723573357435753576357735783579358035813582358335843585358635873588358935903591359235933594359535963597359835993600360136023603360436053606360736083609361036113612361336143615361636173618361936203621362236233624362536263627362836293630363136323633363436353636363736383639364036413642364336443645364636473648364936503651365236533654365536563657365836593660366136623663366436653666366736683669367036713672367336743675367636773678367936803681368236833684368536863687368836893690369136923693369436953696369736983699370037013702370337043705370637073708370937103711371237133714371537163717371837193720372137223723372437253726372737283729373037313732373337343735373637373738373937403741374237433744374537463747374837493750375137523753375437553756375737583759376037613762376337643765376637673768376937703771377237733774377537763777377837793780378137823783378437853786378737883789379037913792379337943795379637973798379938003801380238033804380538063807380838093810381138123813381438153816381738183819382038213822382338243825382638273828382938303831383238333834383538363837383838393840384138423843384438453846384738483849385038513852385338543855385638573858385938603861386238633864386538663867386838693870387138723873387438753876387738783879388038813882388338843885388638873888388938903891389238933894389538963897389838993900390139023903390439053906390739083909391039113912391339143915391639173918391939203921392239233924392539263927392839293930393139323933393439353936393739383939394039413942394339443945394639473948394939503951395239533954395539563957395839593960396139623963396439653966396739683969397039713972397339743975397639773978397939803981398239833984398539863987398839893990399139923993399439953996399739983999400040014002400340044005400640074008400940104011401240134014401540164017401840194020402140224023402440254026402740284029403040314032403340344035403640374038403940404041404240434044404540464047404840494050405140524053405440554056405740584059406040614062406340644065406640674068406940704071407240734074407540764077407840794080408140824083408440854086408740884089409040914092409340944095409640974098409941004101410241034104410541064107410841094110411141124113411441154116411741184119412041214122412341244125412641274128412941304131413241334134413541364137413841394140414141424143414441454146414741484149415041514152415341544155415641574158415941604161416241634164416541664167416841694170417141724173417441754176417741784179418041814182418341844185418641874188418941904191419241934194419541964197419841994200420142024203420442054206420742084209421042114212421342144215421642174218421942204221422242234224422542264227422842294230423142324233423442354236423742384239424042414242424342444245424642474248424942504251425242534254425542564257425842594260426142624263426442654266426742684269427042714272427342744275427642774278427942804281428242834284428542864287428842894290429142924293429442954296429742984299430043014302430343044305430643074308430943104311431243134314431543164317431843194320432143224323432443254326432743284329433043314332433343344335433643374338433943404341434243434344434543464347434843494350435143524353435443554356435743584359436043614362436343644365436643674368436943704371437243734374437543764377437843794380438143824383438443854386438743884389439043914392439343944395439643974398439944004401440244034404440544064407440844094410441144124413441444154416441744184419442044214422442344244425442644274428442944304431443244334434443544364437443844394440444144424443444444454446444744484449445044514452445344544455445644574458445944604461446244634464446544664467446844694470447144724473447444754476447744784479448044814482448344844485448644874488448944904491449244934494449544964497449844994500450145024503450445054506450745084509451045114512451345144515451645174518451945204521452245234524452545264527452845294530453145324533453445354536453745384539454045414542454345444545454645474548454945504551455245534554455545564557455845594560456145624563456445654566456745684569457045714572457345744575457645774578457945804581458245834584458545864587458845894590459145924593459445954596459745984599460046014602460346044605460646074608460946104611461246134614461546164617461846194620462146224623462446254626462746284629463046314632463346344635463646374638463946404641464246434644464546464647464846494650465146524653465446554656465746584659466046614662466346644665466646674668466946704671467246734674467546764677467846794680468146824683468446854686468746884689469046914692469346944695469646974698469947004701470247034704470547064707470847094710471147124713471447154716471747184719472047214722472347244725472647274728472947304731473247334734473547364737473847394740474147424743474447454746474747484749475047514752475347544755475647574758475947604761476247634764476547664767476847694770477147724773477447754776477747784779478047814782478347844785478647874788478947904791479247934794479547964797479847994800480148024803480448054806480748084809481048114812481348144815481648174818481948204821482248234824482548264827482848294830483148324833483448354836483748384839484048414842484348444845484648474848484948504851485248534854485548564857485848594860486148624863486448654866486748684869487048714872487348744875487648774878487948804881488248834884488548864887488848894890489148924893489448954896489748984899490049014902490349044905490649074908490949104911491249134914491549164917491849194920492149224923492449254926492749284929493049314932493349344935493649374938493949404941494249434944494549464947494849494950495149524953495449554956495749584959496049614962496349644965496649674968496949704971497249734974497549764977497849794980498149824983498449854986498749884989499049914992499349944995499649974998499950005001500250035004500550065007500850095010501150125013501450155016501750185019502050215022502350245025502650275028502950305031503250335034503550365037503850395040504150425043504450455046504750485049505050515052505350545055505650575058505950605061506250635064506550665067506850695070507150725073507450755076507750785079508050815082508350845085508650875088508950905091509250935094509550965097509850995100510151025103510451055106510751085109511051115112511351145115511651175118511951205121512251235124512551265127512851295130513151325133513451355136513751385139514051415142514351445145514651475148514951505151515251535154515551565157515851595160516151625163516451655166516751685169517051715172517351745175517651775178517951805181518251835184518551865187518851895190519151925193519451955196519751985199520052015202520352045205520652075208520952105211521252135214521552165217521852195220522152225223522452255226522752285229523052315232523352345235523652375238523952405241524252435244524552465247524852495250525152525253525452555256525752585259526052615262526352645265526652675268526952705271527252735274527552765277527852795280528152825283528452855286528752885289529052915292529352945295529652975298529953005301530253035304530553065307530853095310531153125313531453155316531753185319532053215322532353245325532653275328532953305331533253335334533553365337533853395340534153425343534453455346534753485349535053515352535353545355535653575358535953605361536253635364536553665367536853695370537153725373537453755376537753785379538053815382538353845385538653875388538953905391539253935394539553965397539853995400540154025403540454055406540754085409541054115412541354145415541654175418541954205421542254235424542554265427542854295430543154325433543454355436543754385439544054415442544354445445544654475448544954505451545254535454545554565457545854595460546154625463546454655466546754685469547054715472547354745475547654775478547954805481548254835484548554865487548854895490549154925493549454955496549754985499550055015502550355045505550655075508550955105511551255135514551555165517551855195520552155225523552455255526552755285529553055315532553355345535553655375538553955405541554255435544554555465547554855495550555155525553555455555556555755585559556055615562556355645565556655675568556955705571557255735574557555765577557855795580558155825583558455855586558755885589559055915592