• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Facebook and the endless string of worst-case scenarios

Facebook has naively put its faith in humanity and repeatedly been abused, exploited, and proven either negligent or complicit. The company routinely ignores or downplays the worst-case scenarios, idealistically building products without the necessary safeguards, and then drags its feet to admit the extent of the problems.

This approach, willful or not, has led to its latest scandal, where a previously available API for app developers was harnessed by Trump and Brexit Leave campaign technology provider Cambridge Analytica to pull not just the profile data of 270,000 app users who gave express permission, but of 50 million of those people’s unwitting friends.

Facebook famously changed its motto in 2014 from “Move fast and break things” to “Move fast with stable infra” aka ‘infrastructure’. But all that’s meant is that Facebook’s products function as coded even at enormous scale, not that they’re built any slower or with more caution for how they could be weaponized. Facebook’s platform iconography above captures how it only sees the wrench, then gets shocked by the lightning on the other end.

Sometimes the abuse is natural and emergent, as when people grow envious and insecure from following the highlights of their peers’ lives through the News Feed that was meant to bring people together. Sometimes the abuse is malicious and opportunistic, as it was when Cambridge Analytica used an API designed to help people recommend relevant job openings to friends to purposefully harvest data that populated psychographic profiles of voters so they could be swayed with targeted messaging.

NEW YORK, NY – SEPTEMBER 19: CEO of Cambridge Analytica Alexander Nix speaks at the 2016 Concordia Summit – Day 1 at Grand Hyatt New York on September 19, 2016 in New York City. (Photo by Bryan Bedder/Getty Images for Concordia Summit)

Whether it doesn’t see the disasters coming, makes a calculated gamble that the growth or mission benefits of something will far outweigh the risks, or purposefully makes a dangerous decision while obscuring the consequences, Facebook is responsible for its significant shortcomings. The company has historically cut corners in pursuit of ubiquity that left it, potentially knowingly, vulnerable to exploitation.

And increasingly, Facebook is going to lengths to fight the news cycle surrounding its controversies instead of owning up early and getting to work. Facebook knew about Cambridge Analytica’s data policy violations since at least August 2016, but did nothing but send a legal notice to delete the information.It only suspended the Facebook accounts of Cambridge Analytica and other guilty parties and announced the move this week in hopes of muting forthcoming New York Times and Guardian articles about the issue (articles which it also tried to prevent from running via legal threats.) And since, representatives of the company have quibbled with reporters over Twitter, describing the data misuse as a “breach” instead explaining why it didn’t inform the public about it for years.

“I have more fear in my life that we aren’t going to maximize the opportunity that we have than that we mess something up” Zuckerberg said at a Facebook’s Social Good Forum event in November. Perhaps it’s time for that fear to shift towards ‘what could go wrong’, not just for Zuck, but the leaders of all of today’s tech titans.

Facebook CEO mark Zuckerberg

An Abridged List Of Facebook’s Unforeseen Consequences

Here’s an incomplete list of the massive negative consequences and specific abuses that stem from Facebook’s idealistic product development process:

  • Engagement Ranked Feed = Sensationalized Fake News – Facebook built the News Feed to show the most relevant content first so we’d see the most interesting things going on with our closest friends, but measured that relevance largely based on what people commented on, liked, clicked, shared, and watched. All of those activities are stoked by sensationalist fake new stories, allowing slews of them to go viral while their authors earned ad revenue and financed their operations with ad views delivered by Facebook referral traffic. Facebook downplayed the problem until it finally fessed up and is now scrambling to fight fake news.
  • Engagement Priced Ad Auctions = Polarizing Ads – Facebook gives a discount to ads that are engaging so as to incentivize businesses to produce marketing materials that don’t bore or annoy users such that they close the social network. But the Trump campaign designed purposefully divisive and polarizing ads that would engage a niche base of his supporters to try to score cheaper ad clicks and more free viral sharing of those ads.
  • Academic Research = Emotion Tampering – Facebook allows teams of internal and external researchers to conduct studies on its users in hopes of producing academic breakthroughs in sociology. But in some cases these studies have moved from observation into quietly interfering with the mental conditions of Facebookers. In 2012, Facebook data science team members manipulated the number of emotionally positive or negative posts in the feeds of 689,000 users and then studied their subsequent status updates to see if emotion was contagious. Facebook published the research, failing to foresee the huge uproar that ensued when the public learned that some users, including emotionally vulnerable teenagers who could have been suffering from depression, were deliberately shown sadder posts.
  • Ethnic Affinity Ad Targeting = Racist Exclusion – Facebook’s ad system previously let businesses target users in “ethnic affinity” groups such as “African-American” or “Hispanic” based on their in-app behavior as a stand in for racial targeting. The idea was likely to help businesses find customers interested in their products, but the tool was shown to allow exclusion of certain ethnic affinity groups in ways that could be used to exclude them from legally protected opportunities such as housing; employment, and loans. Facebook has since disabled this kind of targeting while investigates the situation.

    Exclusionary ethnic affinity ad targeting, as spotted by ProPublica

  • App Platform = Game Spam – One of Facebook’s earliest encounters with unforeseen consequences came in 2009 and 2010 after it launched its app platform. The company expected developers to build helpful utilities that could go viral thanks to special, sometimes automatic posts to the News Feed. But game developers seized on the platform and its viral growth channels, spawning companies like Zynga that turned optimizing News Feed game spam into a science. The constant invites to join games in order to help a friend win overwhelmed the feed, threatening to drown out legitimate communication and ruin the experience for non-gamers until Facebook shut down the viral growth channels, cratering many of the game developers.
  • Real Name Policy = Enabling Stalkers – For years, Facebook strictly required to use their real names in order to reduce uncivility and bullying facilitated by hiding behind anonymity. But victims of stalking, domestic violence, and hate crimes argued that their abusers could use Facebook to track them down and harass them. Only after mounting criticism from the transgender community and others did Facebook slightly relax the policy in 2015, though some still find it onerous to set up a pseudonym on Facebook and dangerous to network without one.
  • Self-Serve Ads = Objectionable Ads – To earn money efficiently, Facebook lets people buy ads through its apps without ever talking to a sales representative. But the self-serve ads interface has been repeatedly shown to used nefariously. ProPublica found businesses could target those who followed objectionable user-generated Pages and interests such as “jew haters” and other disturbing keywords on Facebook. And Russian political operatives famously used Facebook ads to spread divisive memes in the United States and pit people against each other and promote distrust between citizens. Facebook is only now shutting down long-tail user-generated ad targeting parameters, hiring more ad moderators, and requiring more thorough political ad buyer documentation.
  • Developer Data Access = Data Abuse – Most recently, Facebook has found its trust in app developers misplaced. For years it offered an API that allowed app makers to pull robust profile data on their users and somewhat limited info about their friends to make personalized products. For example, one could show which bands your friends Like so you’d know who to invite to a concert. But Facebook lacked strong enforcement mechanisms for its policy that prevented developers from sharing or selling that data to others. Now the public is learning that Cambridge Analytica’s trick of turning 270,000 users of Dr. Aleksandr Kogan’s personality quiz app into info about 50 million people illicitly powered psychographic profiles that helped Trump and Brexit pinpoint their campaign messages. It’s quite likely that other developers have violated Facebook’s flimsy policies against storing, selling, or sharing user data they’ve collected, and more reports of misuse will emerge.

Each time, Facebook built tools with rosy expectations, only to negligently leave the safety off and see worst-case scenarios arise. In October, Zuckerberg already asked for forgiveness, but the public wants change.

Trading Kool-Aid For Contrarians

The desire to avoid censorship or partisanship or inefficiency is no excuse. Perhaps people are so addicted to Facebook that no backlash will pry them their feeds. But Facebook can’t treat this as merely a PR problem, a distraction from the fun work of building new social features, unless its employees are ready to shoulder the blame for the erosion of society. Each scandal further proves it can’t police itself, inviting government regulation that could gum up its business. Members of congress are already calling on Zuckerberg to testify.

Yet even with all of the public backlash and calls for regulation, Facebook still seems to lack or ignore the cynics and diverse voices who might foresee how its products could be perverted or were conceptualized foolishly in the first place. Having more minorities and contrarians on the teams that conceive its products could nip troubles in the bud before they blossom.

“The saying goes that optimists tend to be successful and pessimists tend to be right” Zuckerberg explained at the November forum. “If you think something is going to be terrible and it is going to fail, then you are going to look for the data points that prove you right and you will find them. That is what pessimists do. But if you think that something is possible, then you are going to try to find a way to make it work. And even when you make mistakes along the way and even when people doubt you, you are going to keep pushing until you find a way to make it happen.”

Zuckerberg speaks at Facebook’s Social Good Forum

That quote takes on new light given Facebook’s history. The company must promote a culture where pessimists can speak up without reprise. Where a seeking a raise, reaching milestones, avoiding culpability, or a desire to avoid rocking the Kool-Aid boat don’t stifle discussion of a product’s potential hazards. Facebook’s can-do hacker culture that codes with caution to the wind, that asks for forgiveness instead of permission, is failing to scale to the responsibility of being a two billion user communications institution.

And our species is failing to scale to that level of digital congregation too, stymied by our insecurity and greed. Whether someone is demeaning themselves for not having as glamorous of a vacation as their acquaintances, or seizing the world’s megaphone to spew lies in hopes of impeding democracy, we’ve proven incapable of safe social networking.

That’s why we’re relying on Facebook and the other social networks to change, and why it’s so catastrophic when they miss the festering problems, ignore the calls for reform, or try to hide their complicity. To connect the world, Facebook must foresee its ugliness and proactively rise against it.

For more on Facebook’s non-stop scandals, check out these TechCrunch feature pieces:


Source: TechCrunch

30 spring cleaning tricks you'll wish you'd known all along – CNET

Want to clean your house without working too hard? We’ve got you! Here are 30 cleaning tips that will cover every area of your home.
Source: CNET

This spring hazard can cause a dryer fire – CNET

Feathered friends may be causing a dangerous situation. Here’s how to identify and stop it.
Source: CNET

Facebook probes employee's ties to Cambridge Analytica – CNET

A current Facebook researcher formerly worked for a company that reportedly provided information to the controversial data firm.
Source: CNET

Las vacas sin cuernos no son fármacos, necesitan leyes nuevas

Las empresas biotecnológicas de EE. UU. especializadas en edición genética de animales de granja para que presenten cualidades más útiles, como los cerdos sin cola, están haciendo campaña para que sus productos se regulen con normas menos estrictas que las que hay ahora mismo 


Source: MIT

El nuevo artilugio de Google logra la versión más real del mundo en RV

Con algunas modificaciones sobre un equipo existente, un cojín, una batería y una cuerda, el gigante ha lanzado una serie de escenas estáticas hiperrealistas en realidad virtual. La clave del logro está en su capacidad de recoger todo el campo de luz de un entorno determinado


Source: MIT

"No creo que la IA sustituya a los arquitectos, el diseño es más social"

Aunque reconoce el problema de la destrucción de empleos, para el arquitecto suizo Matthias Kohler la automatización y digitalización de la construcción está llena de ventajas, y lamenta que el sector aún no se esté beneficiando de ellas


Source: MIT

Facebook has suspended the account of the whistleblower who exposed Cambridge Analytica

Tech hath no fury like a multi-billion dollar social media giant scorned.

In the latest turn of the developing scandal around how Facebook’s user data wound up in the hands of Cambridge Analytica — for use in the in development in psychographic profiles that may or may not have played a part in the election victory of Donald Trump — the company has taken the unusual step of suspending the account of the whistleblower who helped expose the issues.

In a fantastic profile in The Guardian, Wylie revealed himself to be the architect of the technology that Cambridge Analytica used to develop targeted advertising strategies that arguably helped sway the U.S. presidential election.

A self-described gay, Canadian vegan, Wylie eventually became — as he told The Guardian — the developer of “Steve Bannon’s psychological warfare mindfuck tool.”

The goal, as The Guardian reported, was to combine social media’s reach with big data analytical tools to create psychographic profiles that could then be manipulated in what Bannon and Cambridge Analytica investor Robert Mercer allegedly referred to as a military-style psychological operations campaign — targeting U.S. voters.

In a series of Tweets late Saturday, Wylie’s former employer, Cambridge Analytica, took issue with Wylie’s characterization of events (and much of the reporting around the stories from The Times and The Guardian). 

Meanwhile, Cadwalldr noted on Twitter earlier today she’d received a phone call from the aggrieved whistleblower.

Facebook has since weighed in with a statement of its own, telling media outlets:

“Mr. Wylie has refused to cooperate with us until we lift the suspension on his account. Given he said he ‘exploited Facebook to harvest millions of people’s profiles,’ we cannot do this at this time.

“We are in the process of conducting a comprehensive internal and external review as we work to determine the accuracy of the claims that the Facebook data in question still exists. That is where our focus lies as we remain committed to vigorously enforcing our policies to protect people’s information.”


Source: TechCrunch

Wing It is a Facebook Messenger bot meant to get you out of the house

“I should go on a weekend trip,” you think to yourself. “I’ll go to the mountains!”

And then the weekend comes and all the hotels are booked and you’re tired and the mountains are far and hey look, Netflix!

Wing It is a Facebook Messenger bot that tries to get you out of that rut. You punch in your criteria, and it’ll pop up every once in a while when it finds trips that fit the bill, recommending accommodations and an activity or two in the area.

Wing It asks just a few questions off the bat: Where do you live? How far do you want to go? Is it just you and a partner, or a big group of friends? How much is each person looking to spend?

A few minutes later, it’ll respond with a short list: a few places to stay and some things you might want to do while there. Right now, that’s mostly hikes and trails; eventually, the Wing It team hopes to expand their knowledge base out to things like kayaking trips, rock climbing, or nearby surf spots.

Wing It focuses on things that are far enough away to feel like a vacation, but close enough to do on a whim. While early iterations of the bot tried to offer up trips involving last minute flights, they’ve since learned to focus on things within driving distance. “People would say they’d go on a last minute flight… 98% of people would say ‘I’m in!’. Then you send’em that, and give them the option to book it, and… nothing.”

The underlying concept of a trip planning search engine is by no means new, but there’s something nice about the way it all fits together here. Too many weekend trips die in the planning phases — that moment when you dive into Airbnb and drown under a million options and decide to do it later. Wing It boils it all down to a handful of choices based on what it already knows you’re looking for.

That slimmed down and curated offering is what Wing It’s co-founders, Luis De Pombo and Gabriel Ascanio, are going for. After meeting in school, they started working together on side projects on the weekends. They’d try to mix up the scenery by traveling to new locales on the weekends, only to spend half their time just searching for the right place.

So why a Messenger bot? “Because of the ease of reaching people”, Gabriel tells me. There’s no app to download – you just start a conversation with the bot. Meanwhile, the team can iterate on their concept almost instantly. If the data shows users are liking a feature, they can play it up with no need for a downloaded update; if they change something and usage tanks, they can reverse course on the fly.

Wing It is part of Y Combinator’s Winter 2018 class, and has yet to raise funds beyond that.


Source: TechCrunch

Regulators in the UK are also calling for more hearings into Facebook and Cambridge Analytica

As more details emerge about Cambridge Analytica’s use of Facebook data in the U.S. presidential election, members of Parliament in the UK are joining congressional leadership in the U.S. to call for a deeper investigation and potential regulatory action.

The Chair of parliamentary committee investigating “fake news”, the conservative MP Damian Collins, accused both Cambridge Analytica and Facebook of misleading his committee’s investigation in a statement early Sunday morning indicating that both companies would be called in for more questioning.

Alexander Nix denied to the Committee last month that his company had received any data from the Global Science Research company (GSR). From the evidence that has been published by The Guardian and The Observer this weekend, it seems clear that he has deliberately mislead the Committee and Parliament by giving false statements,” Collins wrote in a statement to the press. “We will be contacting Alexander Nix next week asking him to explain his comments, and answer further questions relating to the links between GSR and Cambridge Analytica, and its associate companies.”

On Friday, Facebook announced that it had suspended the account of Cambridge Analytica for violating the social media company’s terms and conditions by obtaining user data from a third party source without users’ permissions.

The announcement, made late Friday night, was designed to preempt reports published by The New York Times and The Guardian that would have exposed the fact that Cambridge Analytica had obtained information on 50 million Facebook users — and that Facebook had known about the improper availability of that user data for two years.

The use or abuse of that data by Cambridge Analytica in work that it had done with Donald Trump’s campaign for President in 2016 and potentially for other businesses in the run up to the election is at the heart of Donal

Before basically verifying the accuracy of the story, Facebook had threatened both The Times and The Guardian with legal action to try and kill it.

The company’s response to the reports aren’t impressing anyone — and could land more than just its chief counsel in the hot seat.

Facebook Chief Legal Officer Colin Stretch

“We have repeatedly asked Facebook about how companies acquire and hold on to user data from their site, and in particular whether data had been taken from people without their consent. Their answers have consistently understated this risk, and have also been misleading to the Committee,” Collins wrote.

He went on to accuse Facebook of “deliberately answering straight questions from the committee” and failing to supply the Committee with evidence relating to “the relationship between Facebook and Cambridge Analytica.” Evidence that had been promised when members of Parliament went to Washington to quiz Facebook about its role in various political campaigns in the UK.

“I will be writing to Mark Zuckerberg asking that either he, or another senior executive from the company, appear to give evidence in front of the Committee as part our inquiry. It is not acceptable that they have previously sent witnesses who seek to avoid asking difficult questions by claiming not to know the answers. This also creates a false reassurance that Facebook’s stated policies are always robust and effectively policed,” Collins wrote.

“We need to hear from people who can speak about Facebook from a position of authority that requires them to know the truth. The reputation of this company is being damaged by stealth, because of their constant failure to respond with clarity and authority to the questions of genuine public interest that are being directed to them. Someone has to take responsibility for this. It’s time for Mark Zuckerberg to stop hiding behind his Facebook page.”


Source: TechCrunch

1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162636465666768697071727374757677787980818283848586878889909192939495969798991001011021031041051061071081091101111121131141151161171181191201211221231241251261271281291301311321331341351361371381391401411421431441451461471481491501511521531541551561571581591601611621631641651661671681691701711721731741751761771781791801811821831841851861871881891901911921931941951961971981992002012022032042052062072082092102112122132142152162172182192202212222232242252262272282292302312322332342352362372382392402412422432442452462472482492502512522532542552562572582592602612622632642652662672682692702712722732742752762772782792802812822832842852862872882892902912922932942952962972982993003013023033043053063073083093103113123133143153163173183193203213223233243253263273283293303313323333343353363373383393403413423433443453463473483493503513523533543553563573583593603613623633643653663673683693703713723733743753763773783793803813823833843853863873883893903913923933943953963973983994004014024034044054064074084094104114124134144154164174184194204214224234244254264274284294304314324334344354364374384394404414424434444454464474484494504514524534544554564574584594604614624634644654664674684694704714724734744754764774784794804814824834844854864874884894904914924934944954964974984995005015025035045055065075085095105115125135145155165175185195205215225235245255265275285295305315325335345355365375385395405415425435445455465475485495505515525535545555565575585595605615625635645655665675685695705715725735745755765775785795805815825835845855865875885895905915925935945955965975985996006016026036046056066076086096106116126136146156166176186196206216226236246256266276286296306316326336346356366376386396406416426436446456466476486496506516526536546556566576586596606616626636646656666676686696706716726736746756766776786796806816826836846856866876886896906916926936946956966976986997007017027037047057067077087097107117127137147157167177187197207217227237247257267277287297307317327337347357367377387397407417427437447457467477487497507517527537547557567577587597607617627637647657667677687697707717727737747757767777787797807817827837847857867877887897907917927937947957967977987998008018028038048058068078088098108118128138148158168178188198208218228238248258268278288298308318328338348358368378388398408418428438448458468478488498508518528538548558568578588598608618628638648658668678688698708718728738748758768778788798808818828838848858868878888898908918928938948958968978988999009019029039049059069079089099109119129139149159169179189199209219229239249259269279289299309319329339349359369379389399409419429439449459469479489499509519529539549559569579589599609619629639649659669679689699709719729739749759769779789799809819829839849859869879889899909919929939949959969979989991000100110021003100410051006100710081009101010111012101310141015101610171018101910201021102210231024102510261027102810291030103110321033103410351036103710381039104010411042104310441045104610471048104910501051105210531054105510561057105810591060106110621063106410651066106710681069107010711072107310741075107610771078107910801081108210831084108510861087108810891090109110921093109410951096109710981099110011011102110311041105110611071108110911101111111211131114111511161117111811191120112111221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115411551156115711581159116011611162116311641165116611671168116911701171117211731174117511761177117811791180118111821183118411851186118711881189119011911192119311941195119611971198119912001201120212031204120512061207120812091210121112121213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451246124712481249125012511252125312541255125612571258125912601261126212631264126512661267126812691270127112721273127412751276127712781279128012811282128312841285128612871288128912901291129212931294129512961297129812991300130113021303130413051306130713081309131013111312131313141315131613171318131913201321132213231324132513261327132813291330133113321333133413351336133713381339134013411342134313441345134613471348134913501351135213531354135513561357135813591360136113621363136413651366136713681369137013711372137313741375137613771378137913801381138213831384138513861387138813891390139113921393139413951396139713981399140014011402140314041405140614071408140914101411141214131414141514161417141814191420142114221423142414251426142714281429143014311432143314341435143614371438143914401441144214431444144514461447144814491450145114521453145414551456145714581459146014611462146314641465146614671468146914701471147214731474147514761477147814791480148114821483148414851486148714881489149014911492149314941495149614971498149915001501150215031504150515061507150815091510151115121513151415151516151715181519152015211522152315241525152615271528152915301531153215331534153515361537153815391540154115421543154415451546154715481549155015511552155315541555155615571558155915601561156215631564156515661567156815691570157115721573157415751576157715781579158015811582158315841585158615871588158915901591159215931594159515961597159815991600160116021603160416051606160716081609161016111612161316141615161616171618161916201621162216231624162516261627162816291630163116321633163416351636163716381639164016411642164316441645164616471648164916501651165216531654165516561657165816591660166116621663166416651666166716681669167016711672167316741675167616771678167916801681168216831684168516861687168816891690169116921693169416951696169716981699170017011702170317041705170617071708170917101711171217131714171517161717171817191720172117221723172417251726172717281729173017311732173317341735173617371738173917401741174217431744174517461747174817491750175117521753175417551756175717581759176017611762176317641765176617671768176917701771177217731774177517761777177817791780178117821783178417851786178717881789179017911792179317941795179617971798179918001801180218031804180518061807180818091810181118121813181418151816181718181819182018211822182318241825182618271828182918301831183218331834183518361837183818391840184118421843184418451846184718481849185018511852185318541855185618571858185918601861186218631864186518661867186818691870187118721873187418751876187718781879188018811882188318841885188618871888188918901891189218931894189518961897189818991900190119021903190419051906190719081909191019111912191319141915191619171918191919201921192219231924192519261927192819291930193119321933193419351936193719381939194019411942194319441945194619471948194919501951195219531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023202420252026202720282029203020312032203320342035203620372038203920402041204220432044204520462047204820492050205120522053205420552056205720582059206020612062206320642065206620672068206920702071207220732074207520762077207820792080208120822083208420852086208720882089209020912092209320942095209620972098209921002101210221032104210521062107210821092110211121122113211421152116211721182119212021212122212321242125212621272128212921302131213221332134213521362137213821392140214121422143214421452146214721482149215021512152215321542155215621572158215921602161216221632164216521662167216821692170217121722173217421752176217721782179218021812182218321842185218621872188218921902191219221932194219521962197219821992200220122022203220422052206220722082209221022112212221322142215221622172218221922202221222222232224222522262227222822292230223122322233223422352236223722382239224022412242224322442245224622472248224922502251225222532254225522562257225822592260226122622263226422652266226722682269227022712272227322742275227622772278227922802281228222832284228522862287228822892290229122922293229422952296229722982299230023012302230323042305230623072308230923102311231223132314231523162317231823192320232123222323232423252326232723282329233023312332233323342335233623372338233923402341234223432344234523462347234823492350235123522353235423552356235723582359236023612362236323642365236623672368236923702371237223732374237523762377237823792380238123822383238423852386238723882389239023912392239323942395239623972398239924002401240224032404240524062407240824092410241124122413241424152416241724182419242024212422242324242425242624272428242924302431243224332434243524362437243824392440244124422443244424452446244724482449245024512452245324542455245624572458245924602461246224632464246524662467246824692470247124722473247424752476247724782479248024812482248324842485248624872488248924902491249224932494249524962497249824992500250125022503250425052506250725082509251025112512251325142515251625172518251925202521252225232524252525262527252825292530253125322533253425352536253725382539254025412542254325442545254625472548254925502551255225532554255525562557255825592560256125622563256425652566256725682569257025712572257325742575257625772578257925802581258225832584258525862587258825892590259125922593259425952596259725982599260026012602260326042605260626072608260926102611261226132614261526162617261826192620262126222623262426252626262726282629263026312632263326342635263626372638263926402641264226432644264526462647264826492650265126522653265426552656265726582659266026612662266326642665266626672668266926702671267226732674267526762677267826792680268126822683268426852686268726882689269026912692269326942695269626972698269927002701270227032704270527062707270827092710271127122713271427152716271727182719272027212722272327242725272627272728272927302731273227332734273527362737273827392740274127422743274427452746274727482749275027512752275327542755275627572758275927602761276227632764276527662767276827692770277127722773277427752776277727782779278027812782278327842785278627872788278927902791279227932794279527962797279827992800280128022803280428052806280728082809281028112812281328142815281628172818281928202821282228232824282528262827282828292830283128322833283428352836283728382839284028412842284328442845284628472848284928502851285228532854285528562857285828592860286128622863286428652866286728682869287028712872287328742875287628772878287928802881288228832884288528862887288828892890289128922893289428952896289728982899290029012902290329042905290629072908290929102911291229132914291529162917291829192920292129222923292429252926292729282929293029312932293329342935293629372938293929402941294229432944294529462947294829492950295129522953295429552956295729582959296029612962296329642965296629672968296929702971297229732974297529762977297829792980298129822983298429852986298729882989299029912992299329942995299629972998299930003001300230033004300530063007300830093010301130123013301430153016301730183019302030213022302330243025302630273028302930303031303230333034303530363037303830393040304130423043304430453046304730483049305030513052305330543055305630573058305930603061306230633064306530663067306830693070307130723073307430753076307730783079308030813082308330843085308630873088308930903091309230933094309530963097309830993100310131023103310431053106310731083109311031113112311331143115311631173118311931203121312231233124312531263127312831293130313131323133313431353136313731383139314031413142314331443145314631473148314931503151315231533154315531563157315831593160316131623163316431653166316731683169317031713172317331743175317631773178317931803181318231833184318531863187318831893190319131923193319431953196319731983199320032013202320332043205320632073208320932103211321232133214321532163217321832193220322132223223322432253226322732283229323032313232323332343235323632373238323932403241324232433244324532463247324832493250325132523253325432553256325732583259326032613262326332643265326632673268326932703271327232733274327532763277327832793280328132823283328432853286328732883289329032913292329332943295329632973298329933003301330233033304330533063307330833093310331133123313331433153316331733183319332033213322332333243325332633273328332933303331333233333334333533363337333833393340334133423343334433453346334733483349335033513352335333543355335633573358335933603361336233633364336533663367336833693370337133723373337433753376337733783379338033813382338333843385338633873388338933903391339233933394339533963397339833993400340134023403340434053406340734083409341034113412341334143415341634173418341934203421342234233424342534263427342834293430343134323433343434353436343734383439344034413442344334443445344634473448344934503451345234533454345534563457345834593460346134623463346434653466346734683469347034713472347334743475347634773478347934803481348234833484348534863487348834893490349134923493349434953496349734983499350035013502350335043505350635073508350935103511351235133514351535163517351835193520352135223523352435253526352735283529353035313532353335343535353635373538353935403541354235433544354535463547354835493550355135523553355435553556355735583559356035613562356335643565356635673568356935703571357235733574357535763577357835793580358135823583358435853586358735883589359035913592359335943595359635973598359936003601360236033604360536063607360836093610361136123613361436153616361736183619362036213622362336243625362636273628362936303631363236333634363536363637363836393640364136423643364436453646364736483649365036513652365336543655365636573658365936603661366236633664366536663667366836693670367136723673367436753676367736783679368036813682368336843685368636873688368936903691369236933694369536963697369836993700370137023703370437053706370737083709371037113712371337143715371637173718371937203721372237233724372537263727372837293730373137323733373437353736373737383739374037413742374337443745374637473748374937503751375237533754375537563757375837593760376137623763376437653766376737683769377037713772377337743775377637773778377937803781378237833784378537863787378837893790379137923793379437953796379737983799380038013802380338043805380638073808380938103811381238133814381538163817381838193820382138223823382438253826382738283829383038313832383338343835383638373838383938403841384238433844384538463847384838493850385138523853385438553856385738583859386038613862386338643865386638673868386938703871387238733874387538763877387838793880388138823883388438853886388738883889389038913892389338943895389638973898389939003901390239033904390539063907390839093910391139123913391439153916391739183919392039213922392339243925392639273928392939303931393239333934393539363937393839393940394139423943394439453946394739483949395039513952395339543955395639573958395939603961396239633964396539663967396839693970397139723973397439753976397739783979398039813982398339843985398639873988398939903991399239933994399539963997399839994000400140024003400440054006400740084009401040114012401340144015401640174018401940204021402240234024402540264027402840294030403140324033403440354036403740384039404040414042404340444045404640474048404940504051405240534054405540564057405840594060406140624063406440654066406740684069407040714072407340744075407640774078407940804081408240834084408540864087408840894090409140924093409440954096409740984099410041014102410341044105410641074108410941104111411241134114411541164117411841194120412141224123412441254126412741284129413041314132413341344135413641374138413941404141414241434144414541464147414841494150415141524153415441554156415741584159416041614162416341644165416641674168416941704171417241734174417541764177417841794180418141824183418441854186418741884189419041914192419341944195419641974198419942004201420242034204420542064207420842094210421142124213421442154216421742184219422042214222422342244225422642274228422942304231423242334234423542364237423842394240424142424243424442454246424742484249425042514252425342544255425642574258425942604261426242634264426542664267426842694270427142724273427442754276427742784279428042814282428342844285428642874288428942904291429242934294429542964297429842994300430143024303430443054306430743084309431043114312431343144315431643174318431943204321432243234324432543264327432843294330433143324333433443354336433743384339434043414342434343444345434643474348434943504351435243534354435543564357435843594360436143624363436443654366436743684369437043714372437343744375437643774378437943804381438243834384438543864387438843894390439143924393439443954396439743984399440044014402440344044405440644074408440944104411441244134414441544164417441844194420442144224423442444254426442744284429443044314432443344344435443644374438443944404441444244434444444544464447444844494450445144524453445444554456445744584459446044614462446344644465446644674468446944704471447244734474447544764477447844794480448144824483448444854486448744884489449044914492449344944495449644974498449945004501450245034504450545064507450845094510451145124513451445154516451745184519452045214522452345244525452645274528452945304531453245334534453545364537453845394540454145424543454445454546454745484549455045514552455345544555455645574558455945604561456245634564456545664567456845694570457145724573457445754576457745784579458045814582458345844585458645874588458945904591459245934594459545964597459845994600460146024603460446054606460746084609461046114612461346144615461646174618461946204621462246234624462546264627462846294630463146324633463446354636463746384639464046414642464346444645464646474648464946504651465246534654465546564657465846594660466146624663466446654666466746684669467046714672467346744675467646774678467946804681468246834684468546864687468846894690469146924693469446954696469746984699470047014702470347044705470647074708470947104711471247134714471547164717471847194720472147224723472447254726472747284729473047314732473347344735473647374738473947404741474247434744474547464747474847494750475147524753475447554756475747584759476047614762476347644765476647674768476947704771477247734774477547764777477847794780478147824783478447854786478747884789479047914792479347944795479647974798479948004801480248034804480548064807480848094810481148124813481448154816481748184819482048214822482348244825482648274828482948304831483248334834483548364837483848394840484148424843484448454846484748484849485048514852485348544855485648574858485948604861486248634864486548664867486848694870487148724873487448754876487748784879488048814882488348844885488648874888488948904891489248934894489548964897489848994900490149024903490449054906490749084909491049114912491349144915491649174918491949204921492249234924492549264927492849294930493149324933493449354936493749384939494049414942494349444945494649474948494949504951495249534954495549564957495849594960496149624963496449654966496749684969497049714972497349744975497649774978497949804981498249834984498549864987498849894990499149924993499449954996499749984999500050015002500350045005500650075008500950105011501250135014501550165017501850195020502150225023502450255026502750285029503050315032503350345035503650375038503950405041504250435044504550465047504850495050505150525053505450555056505750585059506050615062506350645065506650675068506950705071507250735074507550765077507850795080508150825083508450855086508750885089509050915092509350945095509650975098509951005101510251035104510551065107510851095110511151125113511451155116511751185119512051215122512351245125512651275128512951305131513251335134513551365137513851395140514151425143514451455146514751485149515051515152515351545155515651575158515951605161516251635164516551665167516851695170517151725173517451755176517751785179518051815182518351845185518651875188518951905191519251935194519551965197519851995200520152025203520452055206520752085209521052115212521352145215521652175218521952205221522252235224522552265227522852295230523152325233523452355236523752385239524052415242524352445245524652475248524952505251525252535254525552565257525852595260526152625263526452655266526752685269527052715272527352745275527652775278527952805281528252835284528552865287528852895290529152925293529452955296529752985299530053015302530353045305530653075308530953105311531253135314531553165317531853195320532153225323532453255326532753285329533053315332533353345335533653375338533953405341534253435344534553465347534853495350535153525353535453555356535753585359536053615362536353645365536653675368536953705371537253735374537553765377537853795380538153825383538453855386538753885389539053915392539353945395539653975398539954005401540254035404540554065407540854095410541154125413541454155416541754185419542054215422542354245425542654275428542954305431543254335434543554365437543854395440544154425443544454455446544754485449545054515452545354545455545654575458545954605461546254635464546554665467546854695470547154725473547454755476547754785479548054815482548354845485548654875488548954905491549254935494549554965497549854995500550155025503550455055506550755085509551055115512551355145515551655175518551955205521552255235524552555265527552855295530553155325533553455355536553755385539554055415542554355445545554655475548554955505551555255535554555555565557555855595560556155625563556455655566556755685569557055715572557355745575557655775578557955805581558255835584558555865587558855895590559155925593559455955596559755985599560056015602560356045605560656075608560956105611561256135614