• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Electric scooters are getting closer to regulation in SF

The San Francisco Board of Supervisors’ Land Use and Transportation Committee has been working with the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency to develop a permit process to enable the SFMTA to regulate e-scooter share companies. Today, the Committee heard proposed legislation regarding permitting and enforcement of shared, electric scooter programs. The next step is for this to move forward to the Board of Supervisors for further consideration.

In the last month or so, three different scooter-share programs (from Bird, LimeBike and Spin) deployed their respective e-scooters without explicit permission. This has resulted in a number of scooters being left on the sidewalks and even on MUNI trains.

“I’m very annoyed with how these companies moved forward the last couple of weeks,” Supervisor Jane Kim, a sponsor of the legislation, said today.

The big takeaway from today is that all of these scooter companies jumped the gun pertaining to deployment in San Francisco.

“To say that you asked us for permission and implied we gave you that permission” before deploying the scooters, Supervisor Kim said, “isn’t the best way to build trust.”

Similar to what the city did around dockless bikes, the city is looking to do the same with dockless scooters. The idea isn’t to ban them, but rather to ensure there are rules and regulations around scooters, and that they don’t cause a public nuisance. If all goes according to plan, the SFMTA said it hopes to open up the permitting process May 1.

Earlier today, SF City Attorney Dennis Herrera sent cease-and-desist letters to all three of the companies, requesting a response by April 30. Although there is no proposed complete ban, it’s quite obvious that Supervisors Kim and Aaron Peskin are not happy with each respective startup’s approaches to launching their scooters in San Francisco without explicit permission.

“It’s clear that many of these companies continue to build corporate empires off of a basic premise — making massive profit always trumps protecting the public and innovation is only possible by cutting corners,” Peskin said.

In his opening remarks, Peskin also touched on how this is not emergency legislation, despite what Bird wanted some people to think. He also noted how he and other supervisors have received numerous complaints from the public about the recent proliferation of scooters.

Many of those comments were vocalized today. In the public comment portion, residents expressed concerns of these scooters taking up too much space on sidewalks, and becoming hazards to seniors and people with disabilities. On a couple of occasions, citizens also spoke to concerns of arrogance and elitism that e-scooters represent.

On the other side, members from a local community group in the Bayview neighborhood expressed how some of the companies, like Lime, are proactively working with their communities and even hiring community members to work for them.

Representatives from Lime, Spin and Bird also chimed in. LimeBike said its looks forward to “a fair and transparent process that balances the real and serious concerns of the public.” Spin similarly said it has no intention of doing anything that conflicts with any local or state laws. Bird, on the other hand, went a step further and asked for a window to continue operating while the city figures out its permitting process.

The proposed legislation looks to establish a violation for electric scooters left on sidewalks that do not have a proper permit from the SFMTA.

“With a permit, we would require the scooter share companies to educate their users on how to ride and park responsibly and hold the companies accountable to produce good behavior from their users,” SFMTA spokesperson Paul Rose told TechCrunch.

Here’s a key gist from the ordinance:

The proliferation of [Powered] Scooter Share Programs, which include motorized scooters that can be secured without being locked to a fixed object, has the potential to cause obstructions of public right-of-ways and, in the absence of sufficient education as to existing laws, cause a myriad of other safety hazards for both users of [Powered] Scooters as well as members of the public more generally. The Administrative Code defines a “public nuisance” as any “thing or condition, including but not limited to violations of the Municipal Code or State law, that threatens injury or damage to the health, safety, welfare, or property of members of the public, that obstructs the free use of property of others or of the public right-of-way or commons, or otherwise interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property.”

Following the public comment portion, the committee members had some specific questions for Bird and Spin. Supervisor Kim noted she’s seen several scooters that are tipped over.

“Within the first week, I had seen several that had been pushed over,” Kim said, adding that she’s concerned about safety and the long-term viability of the programs.

In response, Bird Director of Government Affairs Carl Hanson said the company can usually get someone out there within two hours, but Supervisor Kim said that’s too long. In response to a question about proper scooter parking, Hanson said Bird now requires users to take a picture at the end of the ride to prove the scooter is parked properly.

While the SFMTA aims to open up its permitting process early next month, Supervisor Kim said she doesn’t see this working unless docking is in place.

“I don’t think we can permit this until we figure out how to dock them,” Supervisor Kim said.

The SFMTA, however, said the onus is on the companies to ensure proper docking and that it’s willing to work with each company around that process.


Source: TechCrunch

Want to fool a computer vision system? Just tweak some colors

Research into machine learning and the interesting AI models created as a consequence are popular topics these days. But there’s a sort of shadow world of scientists working to undermine these systems — not to show they’re worthless but to shore up their weaknesses. A new paper demonstrates this by showing how vulnerable image recognition models are to the simplest color manipulations of the pictures they’re meant to identify.

It’s not some deep indictment of computer vision — techniques to “beat” image recognition systems might just as easily be characterized as situations in which they perform particularly poorly. Sometimes this is something surprisingly simple: rotating an image, for example, or adding a crazy sticker. Unless a system has been trained specifically on a given manipulation or has orders to check common variations like that, it’s pretty much just going to fail.

In this case it’s research from the University of Washington led by grad student Hossein Hosseini. Their “adversarial” imagery was similarly simple: switch up the colors.

Probably many of you have tried something similar to this when fiddling around in an image manipulation program: by changing the “hue” and “saturation” values on a picture, you can make someone have green skin, a banana appear blue and so on. That’s exactly what the researchers did: twiddled the knobs so a dog looked a bit yellow, a deer looked purplish, etc.

The original images are at left; color-shifted versions and the systems’ best guesses at right.

Critically, however, the “value” of the pixels, meaning how light or dark it is, wasn’t changed, meaning the images still look like what they are — just in weird colors.

But while a cat looks like a cat no matter if it’s grey or pink to us, one can’t really say the same for a deep neural network. The accuracy of the model they tested was reduced by 90 percent on sets of color-tweaked images that it would normally identify easily. Its best guesses are pretty random, as you can see in the figure at right. Changing the colors totally changes the system’s guess.

The team tested several models and they all broke down on the color-shifted set, so it wasn’t just a consequence of this specific system.

It’s not too hard to fix — in this case, all you really need to do is add some labeled, color-shifted images into the training data so the system is exposed to them beforehand. This addition brought success rates back up to reasonable (if still fairly poor) levels.

But the point isn’t that computer vision systems are fundamentally bad at color or something. It’s that there are lots of ways of subtly or not-so-subtly manipulating an image or video that will devastate its accuracy or subvert it.

“Deep networks are very good at learning (or better memorizing) the distribution of training data,” wrote Hosseini in an email to TechCrunch. “They, however, hardly generalize beyond that. So, even if models are trained with augmented data, it’s likely that we can come up with a new type of adversarial images that can fool the model.”

A model trained to catch color variations might still be vulnerable to attention-based adversarial images and vice versa. The way these systems are created and encoded right now simply isn’t robust enough to prevent such attacks. But by cataloguing them and devising improvements that protect against some but not all, we can advance the state of the art.

“I think we need to find a way for the model to learn the concepts, such as being invariant to color or rotation,” Hosseini suggested. “That can save the algorithm a lot of training data and is more similar to how humans learn.”

You can read the full pre-print paper on Arxiv (PDF).


Source: TechCrunch

The White House Loses Rob Joyce and Tom Bossert, Its Cybersecurity Brain Trust

White House cybersecurity coordinator Rob Joyce will follow homeland security advisor Tom Bossert out the door, leaving the Trump administration adrift on cybersecurity policy.
Source: Wired

EU ties pay off, as EIF puts $74M into Dawn Capital’s $232M fund

U.K. VCs were sent a message today by the EU: Continue to invest in European companies and we’ll invest in you. That at least seems to be the takeaway from the news that Dawn Capital, which has built up a reputation as an investor in early-stage SaaS and fintech businesses in the U.K. and Europe, has closed its third fund, Dawn III, at $232 million (£165 million), with the help of the European Investment Fund (EIF).

The EIF is committing £52 million after it previously said it would no longer invest in U.K. venture capital due to Brexit. But it’s clear the strong European ties helped Dawn. It has a 50/50 split of U.K. and European companies in its portfolio.

Claiming to now be the largest European VC fund focused entirely on B2B tech businesses (Notion Capital might contest that), Dawn says the fundraising was heavily over-subscribed despite the hard cap being twice increased. This, the firm said, was down to growing interest amongst investors in the European market, and Dawn’s track record.

That record included some of Europe’s fastest growing B2B software businesses, including Mimecast (currently valued at more than US$2 billion), iZettle, Collibra, Gelato Group, Sonovate, Neo Technology and Showpad.

On the back of these investments, Dawn Fund I has delivered exits such as Mimecast, Sticky, Ecommera and Bityota to name a few. It has also backed iZettle, which now dominates Europe’s SME retail sector.

As well as the European Investment Fund, Fund III investors included the British Business Bank — which is investing in Dawn III through its commercial arm, British Business Investments — alongside new institutional and strategic investors from the U.S. and Europe.

In an interview with TechCrunch, Haakon Overli, general partner at Dawn, said the EIF’s involvement was “because we are investing across Europe.”

He also noted that “really clever U.S. investors are now very well-informed about Europe as they are seeing big companies come out of here. The bigger investors can’t get into the likes of Sequoia, so they see a similar opportunity as when funds moved out from the West U.S. coast to the East.”

He said existing investors had subscribed for nearly 80 percent of Dawn III, “which is nearly three times the size of Dawn II. We are also looking forward to working with our new LPs that will offer strategic benefits, including financial services expertise and closer links to the U.S. market.”

He added that the European tech investment market “has matured so quickly that to keep leading rounds in some of the world’s most exciting businesses has required a commensurate step up in our ability to write larger checks whilst still being confident of continuing to deliver strong returns to our LPs.”

Norman Fiore, general partner at Dawn, said in a statement that “today’s start-ups are eyeing first generation SaaS players as the new targets.” Josh Bell, general partner at Dawn, said “an easing of the financial regulatory environment” in the U.S. will mean “nimble home-grown players taking advantage of this disruption to build European champions.”

Asked if Dawn is seeing new trends in European investing, such as Blockchain, Overli said: “We invest in startups that are solving problems. So if they use blockchain, fine. But we haven’t found one yet. The main thing is that Europe has lots of excellent engineers in companies which are doing great stuff, and the best of those companies are doing very well in the U.S. on the back of really excellent engineering from Europe.”


Source: TechCrunch

Una nueva batería logra un aumento del 20% en su densidad de carga

Sila Nanotechnologies ha combinado una serie de mejoras marginales para dar lugar a este espectacular incremento que podría abaratar los coches eléctricos y permitir nuevos dispositivos con un mayor consumo de energía. Estos últimos podrían llegar al mercado a principios del año que viene
Source: MIT

Los tres retos de Facebook para eliminar las noticias falsas con IA

Por mucho que Mark Zuckerberg crea que la inteligencia artificial automatizará gran parte del proceso de detectar y eliminar los contenidos falsos que se publican en la red social, para lograrlo hay que abordar tres grandes problemas intrínsecos de la propia tecnología
Source: MIT

La tecnología capaz de clonar humanos está cada vez más cerca

Caballos de polo, mascotas de hijos fallecidos, ganado de alta calidad… la clonación de animales ya es una realidad, así que no falta mucho para que seamos capaces de hacer clones de personas. Pero, aunque podamos crearlos, ¿de verdad queremos una sociedad con réplicas de seres humanos?
Source: MIT

*Incredibles 2* Asks: What's the Right Way to Solve a Math Problem?

The new Pixar movie has a trailer that makes you think about how teaching math *really* works.
Source: Wired

New benchmarks show increased MacBook Pro performance using external graphics

Benchmarks show increased performance in the 2015 15-inch MacBook Pro with Touch Bar when bypassing the internal discrete Radeon Pro 460 graphics chip and using an external Radeon RX 580 add-in card. Expect limitations for now.

The post New benchmarks show increased MacBook Pro performance using external graphics appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

What kind of mouse do you use most on a daily basis?

Safety first! Remember that improved ergonomics can help reduce wrist injury and pain. This should be reason enough to reach for an external mouse rather than tap away at your laptop’s touchpad, but you’ll also benefit from more precise tracking.

The post What kind of mouse do you use most on a daily basis? appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527528529530531532533534535536537538539540541542543544545546547548549550551552553554555556557558559560561562563564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585586587588589590591592593594595596597598599600601602603604605606607608609610611612613614615616617618619620621622623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667668669670671672673674675676677678679680681682683684685686687688689690691692693694695696697698699700701702703704705706707708709710711712713714715716717718719720721722723724725726727728729730731732733734735736737738739740741742743744745746747748749750751752753754755756757758759760761762763764765766767768769770771772773774775776777778779780781782783784785786787788789790791792793794795796797798799800801802803804805806807808809810811812813814815816817818819820821822823824825826827828829830831832833834835836837838839840841842843844845846847848849850851852853854855856857858859860861862863864865866867868869870871872873874875876877878879880881882883884885886887888889890891892893894895896897898899900901902903904905906907908909910911912913914915916917918919920921922923924925926927928929930931932933934935936937938939940941942943944945946947948949950951952953954955956957958959960961962963964965966967968969970971972973974975976977978979980981982983984985986987988989990991992993994995996997998999100010011002100310041005100610071008100910101011101210131014101510161017101810191020102110221023102410251026102710281029103010311032103310341035103610371038103910401041104210431044104510461047104810491050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701071107210731074107510761077107810791080108110821083108410851086108710881089109010911092109310941095109610971098109911001101110211031104110511061107110811091110111111121113111411151116111711181119112011211122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311541155115611571158115911601161116211631164116511661167116811691170117111721173117411751176117711781179118011811182118311841185118611871188118911901191119211931194119511961197119811991200120112021203120412051206120712081209121012111212121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245124612471248124912501251125212531254125512561257125812591260126112621263126412651266126712681269127012711272127312741275127612771278127912801281128212831284128512861287128812891290129112921293129412951296129712981299130013011302130313041305130613071308130913101311131213131314131513161317131813191320132113221323132413251326132713281329133013311332133313341335133613371338133913401341134213431344134513461347134813491350135113521353135413551356135713581359136013611362136313641365136613671368136913701371137213731374137513761377137813791380138113821383138413851386138713881389139013911392139313941395139613971398139914001401140214031404140514061407140814091410141114121413141414151416141714181419142014211422142314241425142614271428142914301431143214331434143514361437143814391440144114421443144414451446144714481449145014511452145314541455145614571458145914601461146214631464146514661467146814691470147114721473147414751476147714781479148014811482148314841485148614871488148914901491149214931494149514961497149814991500150115021503150415051506150715081509151015111512151315141515151615171518151915201521152215231524152515261527152815291530153115321533153415351536153715381539154015411542154315441545154615471548154915501551155215531554155515561557155815591560156115621563156415651566156715681569157015711572157315741575157615771578157915801581158215831584158515861587158815891590159115921593159415951596159715981599160016011602160316041605160616071608160916101611161216131614161516161617161816191620162116221623162416251626162716281629163016311632163316341635163616371638163916401641164216431644164516461647164816491650165116521653165416551656165716581659166016611662166316641665166616671668166916701671167216731674167516761677167816791680168116821683168416851686168716881689169016911692169316941695169616971698169917001701170217031704170517061707170817091710171117121713171417151716171717181719172017211722172317241725172617271728172917301731173217331734173517361737173817391740174117421743174417451746174717481749175017511752175317541755175617571758175917601761176217631764176517661767176817691770177117721773177417751776177717781779178017811782178317841785178617871788178917901791179217931794179517961797179817991800180118021803180418051806180718081809181018111812181318141815181618171818181918201821182218231824182518261827182818291830183118321833183418351836183718381839184018411842184318441845184618471848184918501851185218531854185518561857185818591860186118621863186418651866186718681869187018711872187318741875187618771878187918801881188218831884188518861887188818891890189118921893189418951896189718981899190019011902190319041905190619071908190919101911191219131914191519161917191819191920192119221923192419251926192719281929193019311932193319341935193619371938193919401941194219431944194519461947194819491950195119521953195419551956195719581959196019611962196319641965196619671968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022202320242025202620272028202920302031203220332034203520362037203820392040204120422043204420452046204720482049205020512052205320542055205620572058205920602061206220632064206520662067206820692070207120722073207420752076207720782079208020812082208320842085208620872088208920902091209220932094209520962097209820992100210121022103210421052106210721082109211021112112211321142115211621172118211921202121212221232124212521262127212821292130213121322133213421352136213721382139214021412142214321442145214621472148214921502151215221532154215521562157215821592160216121622163216421652166216721682169217021712172217321742175217621772178217921802181218221832184218521862187218821892190219121922193219421952196219721982199220022012202220322042205220622072208220922102211221222132214221522162217221822192220222122222223222422252226222722282229223022312232223322342235223622372238223922402241224222432244224522462247224822492250225122522253225422552256225722582259226022612262226322642265226622672268226922702271227222732274227522762277227822792280228122822283228422852286228722882289229022912292229322942295229622972298229923002301230223032304230523062307230823092310231123122313231423152316231723182319232023212322232323242325232623272328232923302331233223332334233523362337233823392340234123422343234423452346234723482349235023512352235323542355235623572358235923602361236223632364236523662367236823692370237123722373237423752376237723782379238023812382238323842385238623872388238923902391239223932394239523962397239823992400240124022403240424052406240724082409241024112412241324142415241624172418241924202421242224232424242524262427242824292430243124322433243424352436243724382439244024412442244324442445244624472448244924502451245224532454245524562457245824592460246124622463246424652466246724682469247024712472247324742475247624772478247924802481248224832484248524862487248824892490249124922493249424952496249724982499250025012502250325042505250625072508250925102511251225132514251525162517251825192520252125222523252425252526252725282529253025312532253325342535253625372538253925402541254225432544254525462547254825492550255125522553255425552556255725582559256025612562256325642565256625672568256925702571257225732574257525762577257825792580258125822583258425852586258725882589259025912592259325942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826092610261126122613261426152616261726182619262026212622262326242625262626272628262926302631263226332634263526362637263826392640264126422643264426452646264726482649265026512652265326542655265626572658265926602661266226632664266526662667266826692670267126722673267426752676267726782679268026812682268326842685268626872688268926902691269226932694269526962697269826992700270127022703270427052706270727082709271027112712271327142715271627172718271927202721272227232724272527262727272827292730273127322733273427352736273727382739274027412742274327442745274627472748274927502751275227532754275527562757275827592760276127622763276427652766276727682769277027712772277327742775277627772778277927802781278227832784278527862787278827892790279127922793279427952796279727982799280028012802280328042805280628072808280928102811281228132814281528162817281828192820282128222823282428252826282728282829283028312832283328342835283628372838283928402841284228432844284528462847284828492850285128522853285428552856285728582859286028612862286328642865286628672868286928702871287228732874287528762877287828792880288128822883288428852886288728882889289028912892289328942895289628972898289929002901290229032904290529062907290829092910291129122913291429152916291729182919292029212922292329242925292629272928292929302931293229332934293529362937293829392940294129422943294429452946294729482949295029512952295329542955295629572958295929602961296229632964296529662967296829692970297129722973297429752976297729782979298029812982298329842985298629872988298929902991299229932994299529962997299829993000300130023003300430053006300730083009301030113012301330143015301630173018301930203021302230233024302530263027302830293030303130323033303430353036303730383039304030413042304330443045304630473048304930503051305230533054305530563057305830593060306130623063306430653066306730683069307030713072307330743075307630773078307930803081308230833084308530863087308830893090309130923093309430953096309730983099310031013102310331043105310631073108310931103111311231133114311531163117311831193120312131223123312431253126312731283129313031313132313331343135313631373138313931403141314231433144314531463147314831493150315131523153315431553156315731583159316031613162316331643165316631673168316931703171317231733174317531763177317831793180318131823183318431853186318731883189319031913192319331943195319631973198319932003201320232033204320532063207320832093210321132123213321432153216321732183219322032213222322332243225322632273228322932303231323232333234323532363237323832393240324132423243324432453246324732483249325032513252325332543255325632573258325932603261326232633264326532663267326832693270327132723273327432753276327732783279328032813282328332843285328632873288328932903291329232933294329532963297329832993300330133023303330433053306330733083309331033113312331333143315331633173318331933203321332233233324332533263327332833293330333133323333333433353336333733383339334033413342334333443345334633473348334933503351335233533354335533563357335833593360336133623363336433653366336733683369337033713372337333743375337633773378337933803381338233833384338533863387338833893390339133923393339433953396339733983399340034013402340334043405340634073408340934103411341234133414341534163417341834193420342134223423342434253426342734283429343034313432343334343435343634373438343934403441344234433444344534463447344834493450345134523453345434553456345734583459346034613462346334643465346634673468346934703471347234733474347534763477347834793480348134823483348434853486348734883489349034913492349334943495349634973498349935003501350235033504350535063507350835093510351135123513351435153516351735183519352035213522352335243525352635273528352935303531353235333534353535363537353835393540354135423543354435453546354735483549355035513552355335543555355635573558355935603561356235633564356535663567356835693570357135723573357435753576357735783579358035813582358335843585358635873588358935903591359235933594359535963597359835993600360136023603360436053606360736083609361036113612361336143615361636173618361936203621362236233624362536263627362836293630363136323633363436353636363736383639364036413642364336443645364636473648364936503651365236533654365536563657365836593660366136623663366436653666366736683669367036713672367336743675367636773678367936803681368236833684368536863687368836893690369136923693369436953696369736983699370037013702370337043705370637073708370937103711371237133714371537163717371837193720372137223723372437253726372737283729373037313732373337343735373637373738373937403741374237433744374537463747374837493750375137523753375437553756375737583759376037613762376337643765376637673768376937703771377237733774377537763777377837793780378137823783378437853786378737883789379037913792379337943795379637973798379938003801380238033804380538063807380838093810381138123813381438153816381738183819382038213822382338243825382638273828382938303831383238333834383538363837383838393840384138423843384438453846384738483849385038513852385338543855385638573858385938603861386238633864386538663867386838693870387138723873387438753876387738783879388038813882388338843885388638873888388938903891389238933894389538963897389838993900390139023903390439053906390739083909391039113912391339143915391639173918391939203921392239233924392539263927392839293930393139323933393439353936393739383939394039413942394339443945394639473948394939503951395239533954395539563957395839593960396139623963396439653966396739683969397039713972397339743975397639773978397939803981398239833984398539863987398839893990399139923993399439953996399739983999400040014002400340044005400640074008400940104011401240134014401540164017401840194020402140224023402440254026402740284029403040314032403340344035403640374038403940404041404240434044404540464047404840494050405140524053405440554056405740584059406040614062406340644065406640674068406940704071407240734074407540764077407840794080408140824083408440854086408740884089409040914092409340944095409640974098409941004101410241034104410541064107410841094110411141124113411441154116411741184119412041214122412341244125412641274128412941304131413241334134413541364137413841394140414141424143414441454146414741484149415041514152415341544155415641574158415941604161416241634164416541664167416841694170417141724173417441754176417741784179418041814182418341844185418641874188418941904191419241934194419541964197419841994200420142024203420442054206420742084209421042114212421342144215421642174218421942204221422242234224422542264227422842294230423142324233423442354236423742384239424042414242424342444245424642474248424942504251425242534254425542564257425842594260426142624263426442654266426742684269427042714272427342744275427642774278427942804281428242834284428542864287428842894290429142924293429442954296429742984299430043014302430343044305430643074308430943104311431243134314431543164317431843194320432143224323432443254326432743284329433043314332433343344335433643374338433943404341434243434344434543464347434843494350435143524353435443554356435743584359436043614362436343644365436643674368436943704371437243734374437543764377437843794380438143824383438443854386438743884389439043914392439343944395439643974398439944004401440244034404440544064407440844094410441144124413441444154416441744184419442044214422442344244425442644274428442944304431443244334434443544364437443844394440444144424443444444454446444744484449445044514452445344544455445644574458445944604461446244634464446544664467446844694470447144724473447444754476447744784479448044814482448344844485448644874488448944904491449244934494449544964497449844994500450145024503450445054506450745084509451045114512451345144515451645174518451945204521452245234524452545264527452845294530453145324533453445354536453745384539454045414542454345444545454645474548454945504551455245534554455545564557455845594560456145624563456445654566456745684569457045714572457345744575457645774578457945804581458245834584458545864587458845894590459145924593459445954596459745984599460046014602460346044605460646074608460946104611461246134614461546164617461846194620462146224623462446254626462746284629463046314632463346344635463646374638463946404641464246434644464546464647464846494650465146524653465446554656465746584659466046614662466346644665466646674668466946704671467246734674467546764677467846794680468146824683468446854686468746884689469046914692469346944695469646974698469947004701470247034704470547064707470847094710471147124713471447154716471747184719472047214722472347244725472647274728472947304731473247334734473547364737473847394740474147424743474447454746474747484749475047514752475347544755475647574758475947604761476247634764476547664767476847694770477147724773477447754776477747784779478047814782478347844785478647874788478947904791479247934794479547964797479847994800480148024803480448054806480748084809481048114812481348144815481648174818481948204821482248234824482548264827482848294830483148324833483448354836483748384839484048414842484348444845484648474848484948504851485248534854485548564857485848594860486148624863486448654866486748684869487048714872487348744875487648774878487948804881488248834884488548864887488848894890489148924893489448954896489748984899490049014902490349044905490649074908490949104911491249134914491549164917491849194920492149224923492449254926492749284929493049314932493349344935493649374938493949404941494249434944494549464947494849494950495149524953495449554956495749584959496049614962496349644965496649674968496949704971497249734974497549764977497849794980498149824983498449854986498749884989499049914992499349944995499649974998499950005001500250035004500550065007500850095010501150125013501450155016501750185019502050215022502350245025502650275028502950305031503250335034503550365037503850395040504150425043504450455046504750485049505050515052505350545055505650575058505950605061506250635064506550665067506850695070507150725073507450755076507750785079508050815082508350845085508650875088508950905091509250935094509550965097509850995100510151025103510451055106510751085109511051115112511351145115511651175118511951205121512251235124512551265127512851295130513151325133513451355136513751385139514051415142514351445145514651475148514951505151515251535154515551565157515851595160516151625163516451655166516751685169517051715172517351745175517651775178517951805181518251835184518551865187518851895190519151925193519451955196519751985199520052015202520352045205520652075208520952105211521252135214521552165217521852195220522152225223522452255226522752285229523052315232523352345235523652375238523952405241524252435244524552465247524852495250525152525253525452555256525752585259526052615262526352645265526652675268526952705271527252735274527552765277527852795280528152825283528452855286528752885289529052915292529352945295529652975298529953005301530253035304530553065307530853095310531153125313531453155316531753185319532053215322532353245325532653275328532953305331533253335334533553365337533853395340534153425343534453455346534753485349535053515352535353545355535653575358535953605361536253635364536553665367536853695370537153725373537453755376537753785379538053815382538353845385538653875388538953905391539253935394539553965397539853995400540154025403540454055406540754085409541054115412541354145415541654175418541954205421542254235424542554265427542854295430543154325433543454355436543754385439544054415442544354445445