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Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Inside the Instagram AI that fills Explore with fresh, juicy content

Instagram has posted an article describing the behind-the-scenes machinery that fills the Explore tab in Instagram with new, interesting stuff every time you open it. It’s a bit technical, so here are five takeaways.

Even Instagram and Facebook have limited resources

Unlike the feed, which some still would prefer was simply chronological, the Explore tab needs to be algorithmically driven. But understanding what’s happening on an image-based social network and recommending new content to people is a problem that’s exactly as hard as you make it.

If these companies had infinite processing power and time, they’d probably come at the question of Explore a bit differently. But as it is they need to serve hundreds of millions of people on short notice and with merely enormous computing resources. I think they put this at the top of the post so people don’t wonder why they’re cutting corners.

It’s also easier to experiment and iterate when you can change stuff and see results quickly, they point out.

It’s all about the account, not the post

So much is posted to Instagram that it would be pretty much impossible to keep track of every photo individually, for recommendation purposes anyway. It’s simpler and more efficient to track accounts, since accounts tend to have themes or topics, from a broader one like “travel” to something highly specific, like especially round seals.

While liking one post from an account doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll like everything else from that account, it is a good indicator that you’re at least interested in the theme of that account. Even if it was this particular post of this particular cat that you wanted to heart because it reminds you of old Mittens, if you’re liking pictures from an account that mostly posts cats, that’s valuable information.

Complex habits inform the algorithm

Notably it isn’t just image features that Instagram uses to figure out what accounts are topically linked, though of course that kind of thing can be detected too. They also use your behavior.

For instance, when you like several posts in a row, they’re more likely to be linked in some way even if Instagram’s algorithms can’t quite see it:

If an individual interacts with a sequence of accounts in the same session, it’s more likely to be topically coherent compared with a random sequence of accounts from the diverse range of Instagram accounts. This helps us identify topically similar accounts.

People just tend to look into stuff that way, going from one travel-focused account to the next, or focusing on animals because they need a pick-me up. All that information gets sucked up by the algorithm and inspected for relevance. Of course deliberate actions like “see fewer posts like this” and blocking accounts has a lot of weight as well.

From “seed accounts” to a top 25

The process of getting from a couple billion posts to just two dozen can be pretty difficult, but you can cut the problem down to manageable size by limiting the Explore tab to accounts linked in some way to accounts the user has already liked or saved posts from. These are called “seed accounts” because everything else in the process really grows out of them.

Because of how the machine learning system represents accounts and their topics inside itself, it’s super easy for it to find a couple hundred similar accounts.

Imagine if you know someone likes a particular reddish-orange marble and you need to find some more like it. If you just dip your hand into a sack of marbles you’re unlikely to find one quickly. Even if you pour them out on the floor you’ll still have to hunt around for a bit. But if you’ve already organized them by color, all you have to do is reach into the general vicinity of the marble they like and you’re almost guaranteed to pick a winner.

The machine learning model does that by giving all these accounts a sort of location in a virtual space, and the closer two are in that space, the closer they are topically.

So the really hard part of paring down a set of billions to a set of hundreds is basically already accomplished by the way the accounts are classified.

From there Instagram does three passes with neural networks of increasing complexity.

First, slightly confusingly, is a simpler, combined version of the next two processes, which takes it from 500 to 150 accounts. This is a little weird, but think about it this way: This neural network has seen steps 2 and 3 happen many times and has a pretty good idea of what they do. Sort of like if you’d seen cookies get made enough times that you could guess at a recipe. You’d probably get close, but you also wouldn’t want to publish it to like a hundred million people. So this step just gets the obvious stuff right.

Second is a computationally cheap neural network that uses way more signals than the simple topical similarity mentioned above. Here’s where your individual likes come into play, as well as the deeper data about accounts. You like travel, sure, but in particular you like couples traveling — both things the marble-sorting algorithm above can help with. Other parameters, like a post’s general popularity, or actually its being different from the other posts in the mix, figure in as well. That skims another 100 off the top, leaving 50.

Third is a computationally expensive version of the above, which does another pass on those 50 and cuts them in half, basically by looking closer and taking the time to include, perhaps, a thousand data points each rather than a hundred.

I guess that was kind of long for a “takeaway.” Don’t worry, the next one is quick.

And of course, no �

“We want to make sure the content we recommend is both safe and appropriate for a global community of many ages on Explore,” they write. “Using a variety of signals, we filter out content we can identify as not being eligible to be recommended.”

So now you know why you don’t get any of that in Explore.


Source: TechCrunch

Tesla Cybertruck Vs. a Ford F-150: It's All About Friction

Elon Musk tweeted a clip of the Cybertruck towing an F-150 uphill. It might look like a contest of power or torque, but it’s actually a battle of mass.
Source: Wired

How to turn on Bluetooth in Windows

Bluetooth makes connecting a Windows PC to all kinds of accessories fast an easy, with just a few quick steps needed to start mousing, typing, and listening. Here is how to turn on Bluetooth in Windows.
Source: Digital trends

How to reset a Chromebook

Are you ready to sell or give away your Chromebook? Then you’ll probably want to erase all of your user data so it doesn’t accidentally fall into the wrong hands. Here’s how to reset a Chromebook.
Source: Digital trends

London Could Ban Uber; Women and Climate Change; and More News

Catch up on the most important news from today in two minutes or less.
Source: Wired

Detectan los estallidos de rayos gamma más potentes jamás registrados

Dos explosiones de rayos gamma captadas recientemente superan el récord anterior: los fotones registrados después de una de ellas alcanzaron una energía un billón de veces mayor que la de la luz visible. Telescopios de España y Namibia han detectado estas emisiones que ayudan a comprender el universo
Source: MIT

Estas técnicas predicen conflictos antes de una escalada de violencia

Gracias al aprendizaje automático o a las mejoras en recogida de datos, se han desarrollado modelos más precisos para pronosticar asesinatos masivos. Un ejemplo es ViEWS, que ha sido capaz de predecir algunos episodios de violencia recientes en Etiopía. Aunque aún no son perfectos, podrían ayudar a salvar vidas
Source: MIT

The ACLU wants details about videos of Boston Dynamics robot in police exercises

Back in April at our robotics event at UC Berkeley, Boston Dynamics head Marc Raibert showed off video of the company’s Spot robot in a number of different real world scenarios. Some, like construction and first responders, were familiar to anyone who has been following the company — and automation in general. 

Another scenario, which found the robot opening doors during a training exercise for the Massachusetts State Police, was something different entirely. It was a brief video that demonstrated how the robot could potentially be used to help get human officers out of harm’s way during a terrorist or hostage situation.

All these months later, the video has raised some questions among some civil liberties groups — including, mostly notably, the Massachusetts wing of the ACLU. A public records request filed by the organization is in response to a Facebook post by the department describing the July event that, “seeks to learn more about how your agency uses or has contemplated using robotics.�

ACLU Massachusetts’ Technology for Liberty Program Director Kade Crockford expanded on the request in a statement provided to TechCrunch:

There is a lot we do not know about how and where these robotics systems are currently deployed in Massachusetts. All too often, the deployment of these technologies happens faster than our social, political, or legal systems react. We urgently need more transparency from government agencies, who should be upfront with the public about their plans to test and deploy new technologies. We also need statewide regulations to protect civil liberties, civil rights, and racial justice in the age of artificial intelligence. Massachusetts must do more to ensure safeguards keep pace with technological innovation, and the ACLU is happy to partner with officials at the local and state levels to find and implement solutions to ensure our law keeps pace with technology.

As with any new technology, it’s right to ask many of these questions. Of course, this particular video has the added bonus of combining people’s distrust of big, scary robots with their (arguably deserved) distrust of law enforcement. It’s pretty easy to watch a video like that and go immediately down a dystopian rabbit hole.

Boston Dynamics told TechCrunch that it’s not at liberty to discuss the specifics of how the Massachusetts State Police deployed the robot, but the company’s Vice President Of Business Development Michael Perry explained that it’s put in place guidelines for how the loaner units can be used.

“Right now we’re at a scale where we can pick and choose the partners we engage with and make sure that they have a similar deployment and a vision for how robots are used,� Perry said. “For example, not using robots in a way that would physically harm or intimidate people. But also have a realistic expectation for what a robot can and cannot do.�

Perry explained that Boston Dynamics’ vision has the robots taking on a first responder role, rather than one of law enforcement. The latter seems to be the source of much of the concern here. It’s not so much the idea of the robots being implemented in a scenario with bomb deployment or hazardous material, so much as the potential to take a role in policing.

Notably, the ACLU’s request involves, “Documents, including emails, discussing, referencing, or pertaining to the weaponization of any robotics.�

Perry explains that the organization’s concerns are valid, but believes that Spot doesn’t represent a significant departure from existing technologies employed by first responders.

“It’s certainly the case that when a new technology is employed, multiple stakeholders need to come to the table,� he says. “I think the issues that the ACLU has raised specifically are applicable not just to our robots but to any new technology that is deployed. I’m not sure that what we bring to the table is significantly differentiated from anything that is already out there.�


Source: TechCrunch

Black Friday 2019 at Best Buy: The 10.2-inch iPad for $250 plus deals on Apple Watch and Beats headphones – CNET

Some of Best Buy’s Black Friday deals are already live — check out the latest.
Source: CNET

Ford responds after Tesla Cybertruck pulls F-150 in tug-of-war video – Roadshow

If Tesla wants a challenge, Ford wants it done right.
Source: CNET

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