• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Midterm elections, social media and hacking: What you need to know – CNET

Hackers and propagandists are a threat to US elections. Here’s how the US government and tech giants like Facebook and Twitter are working to stop them from interfering with the vote.
Source: CNET

A modular Surface Studio could make for easy upgrades in the future

In the future, you may be able to easily upgrade your Surface Studio without having to buy an entirely new desktop. Microsoft hints that it’s exploring a modular design that would allow users to upgrade the internal components.

The post A modular Surface Studio could make for easy upgrades in the future appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

Facebook tests Snap Map-style redesign of Nearby Friends

Helping friends meet up offline has been a massive missed opportunity for Facebook . Whether because the brand is too creepy or the politely opt-in 2015 rollout of its location sharing feature wasn’t creepy enough, Facebook Nearby Friends never quite took off. Only 103 of my 1120 friends in San Francisco have it turned on.

It’s not the only one struggling with “The quest to cure loneliness”. Foursquare Swarm, Glympse, Apple’s Find My Friends, and Google Maps’ real-time coordinate sharing option have all failed to become a ubiquitous standard.

The redesigned map homescreen of Facebook Nearby Friends

But last year, Snapchat launched a different take on the idea based on its biggest acquisition ever, French app Zenly. With Snap Map, it wasn’t just about the utility of seeing a list of friends’ locations like on Facebook, but also splayed them out across map that you could dive into to see their latest geo-tagged Stories. It was as much about fun and content as it was about actually hanging out with people in person.

Now Facebook is testing a significant redesign of Nearby Friends that looks a lot more like Snap Map. It replaces the list view of the neighborhoods and cities friends are in with a map that groups friends together by city. A “view list” button opens up the former homescreen, though in both views you still can only see a friend’s approximate location in a neighborhood or city, not their exact coordinates. Facebook confirms to TechCrunch that “We’re testing a new design for Nearby Friends, a tool people have used for the past four years to meet with their friends in person. People have complete control over whether to use Nearby Friends or not. They can turn it on in the Nearby Friends bookmark.”

That statement both subtly promotes Facebook’s opt-in privacy setting for Nearby Friends while urging people to actually go back and activate it. The screenshot was generated from the code of Facebook’s Android app by mobile researcher and frequent TechCrunch tipster Jane Manchun Wong. Interestingly, after TechCrunch’s inquiry, Wong tells me Facebook appears to have deactivated server-side the ability to access the map feature.

The reason this matters is that Facebook is desperate for engagement, especially amongst younger users who are slipping away from it to Snapchat and Instagram. If revamped with this map and other improvements, Nearby Friends could become a more popular utility that keeps people opening Facebook. Getting more people to share their real-time location could open new opportunities for local ad targeting. And Facebook could benefit from showing it unlocks meaningful offline connection given its recent brand troubles following election interference and calls that it’s the opposite of “time well spent”.

The existing design of Facebook Nearby Friends

Snap Map was smart, but it’s sadly buried behind an awkward pinch gesture from Snapchat’s homescreen, or inside the search bar where some users wouldn’t expect it. Internal Snapchat usage data scored by Taylor Lorenz for The Daily Beast revealed that Snap Map had sunk from a high of 35 million daily unique viewers after its June 2017 launch to just 19 million by that September — merely 11 percent of Snapchat’s users at the time. Users never seemed to cease on it as a method of browsing Snapchat’s geo-tagged content.

Unfortunately, none of these location apps have figured out that meeting up isn’t all about location. It’s about availability. It doesn’t matter if I see my best friend is at a coffee shop right away if they’re not actually available to hang out. They could be on date, having a business meeting, or trying to get some work done. If I drop in just because I see they’re close by, it could be awkward. You’d have to first message them, but you can come off seeming desperate if they can’t or don’t want to meet up with you.

Location apps need an availability indicator similar to the green “online” dot used by many chat apps. You could toggle that on if you wanted to show you’re interested in some spontaneous friend time.

Facebook’s actually spent the last year trying to build this into Messenger in the form of “Your Emoji” status. It lets you pick an emoji like a martini, fork and knife, or barbell that’s temporarily overlaid on your profile pic thumbnail to let people know you’re down for drinking, getting dinner, or working out. The feature is yet to be widely tested, indicating that Facebook hasn’t quite cracked the nut of encouraging online meetups.

Ideally, Facebook would combine Nearby Friends and Your Emoji to help users share both approximately where they are and whether they want to hang out. The next step would be making it easy to watch a friend’s geo-tagged Facebook Story from wherever they are. And then, Facebook could further copy Snap Map by making public Stories and other location-based content accessible from the map so you could browse it for fun instead of the News Feed or Stories tray.

Still, making Nearby Friends work could require Facebook to rethink the privacy element. The friend graph has bloated to include family, co-workers, bosses, and distant acquaintances that users might not want to share their real-time location with. Finding a better way to let you share where you are with just your closest friends could make more people comfortable with the feature.

Facebook needs to rethink its entire product stack to embrace the high-definition cameras, big phone screens, and fast network connections that make it easier to convey information through imagery than text. Visual communication is the future and that goes far beyond Stories.


Source: TechCrunch

Twitter launches a ‘Data Saver’ mode that makes its main app more like Twitter Lite

An updated version of the Twitter mobile app will allow users to gain more control over their data usage – similar to how the Twitter Lite app designed for emerging markets works. Now, instead of having to download a separate app in order to limit data consumption or manually adjust various settings, users will be able to turn on a new ‘Data Saver’ option available in Twitter’s Settings.

Until today, Twitter offered Data Saver in Twitter for Windows, Twitter Lite, and its mobile website. Some users may have also seen the Data Saver option on iOS or Android, as well as on Twitter’s desktop website, because of a test Twitter had underway.

That desktop web test had also included moving other elements and features around, like putting Trends underneath the “Who To Follow” suggestions, for example, or making “Night Mode” a more visible option.

But with the launch today, the Data Saver feature is broadly available to all iOS and Android users, a company spokesperson confirmed.

To take advantage of Data Saver, you’ll visit the Data Usage settings in the iOS or Android mobile app and toggle the option on or off. When enabled, images will load in lower quality and videos won’t autoplay. If you’re browsing Twitter and want to see an image appear in higher quality, you can tap on the three-top menu and pick “Load High Quality” to change the setting on that particular piece of content.

The updated version includes a few other tweaks as well, including a change to make it easier to manage who’s in your group chats, plus VoiceOver improvements in polls, and better labels for some types of Twitter ads, according to the app’s update text in the App Store.

For those who really need to conserve, however, Twitter Lite is still the better option. While Data Saver will consume less data when turned on, Twitter Lite takes up less space on your phone, too.

The new Twitter app is live now, but the features themselves may still be rolling out at this time.

Twitter tells us its @TwitterSupport account will tweet the news later today as Data Saver rolls out to everyone.


Source: TechCrunch

Are Android apps coming to your Windows laptop? It’s in the works

Microsoft briefly showcased a new ability which lets Windows 10 users mirror Android apps to Windows 10 PC. The feature is reportedly part of the Your Phone app and further helps in continuing things from a phone right on a PC. There is no clear release date as of yet.

The post Are Android apps coming to your Windows laptop? It’s in the works appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

MasterClass, the education platform featuring all-star instructors, will soon teach you how to run for office, too

In 2015, the San Francisco-based education platform MasterClass was founded to provide everyone access to “genius,” whether it be in filmmaking, directing, book writing, cooking, tennis, basketball, comedy, acting, screenwriting, photography — even producing electronic music. Toward that end, MasterClass, which is now selling a $180 all-you-can-eat yearly subscription, currently offers hours of instructional insights from Martin Scorsese, Ron Howard, James Patterson, Gordon Ramsay, Serena Williams, Steph Curry, Judd Apatow, Helen Mirren, Aaron Sorkin and Annie Leibovitz, among many experts in their respective fields.

Now, backed by $80 million in fresh funding that it closed on earlier this month, the fast-ballooning company is looking to expand on ways to attract new people to its platform, and two of those new areas center on business and politics. So said co-founder and CEO David Rogier at an industry event in San Francisco last week hosted by this editor. More specifically, he said to expect classes on how to run for office and how to govern with the next year, which is perhaps unsurprising given that a record number of people are running for Congress this year, including record numbers of women.

In fact, Rogier — who has taken some of MasterClass’s storytelling workshops — took attendees behind the scenes to share quite a bit about MasterClass, including how it is consumed by users, how it approaches marketing spend and why he thinks it’s five to eight times stickier than online education platforms that promise users credentials of one kind or another.

He was interviewed by Sarah McBride of Bloomberg; excerpts of their chat follow. You can also see video of their conversation below.

 

On which class Rogier might recommend to someone new, to give them a flavor of what MasterClass offers:

We did a class with Hans Zimmer, a film composer who has composed songs for every single film you’ve ever seen. I’d never heard of Hans Zimmer before [he signed on to do a MasterClass]. I’m also not very good with beats and rhythm. But he starts the class by saying, ‘Every time you play a note, it asks a question — then answers it.’ And I was like, what kind of crap is that? And then he plays it on the keyboard, and I was like, holy shit, and [the class] has changed the way that I hear music.

On how MasterClass decides on who to invite to the platform:

We do lots of work to figure out who people want to learn from. It’s a combination of: who is among the best in the world, and who is somebody who [customers] think they can actually learn from?

I maybe shouldn’t say this out loud, but one of the people who people love but they don’t want to learn from is Will Smith. I love him as an actor; I think he’s really great. But even though he has the most fans on Facebook and the world, people don’t want to learn from him, when you ask them, because they say he’s tall and handsome and charismatic and funny. Like, I can’t be those things!

[Meanwhile] I think of Steph Curry. I think I can be Steph Curry. Steph Curry is 6′ 1″, 180 pounds . . . obviously I can’t be Steph Curry [laughs], but there’s something about feeling that I can learn from somebody.

How Rogier and his team lined up talent for the MasterClass platform in its earliest days:

It probably took us a year [to line up the early talent]. I mean, we cold-emailed and cold-called everybody who we could.

I remember we wanted a class from James Patterson. James Patterson is the best-selling author in the world, and I cold-emailed everybody I could — his speaking agent, his [primary] agent, his PR person. The only response I got was from a guy who claimed to be his speaking agent. I got so excited. Me and my co-founder Aaron [Rasmussen] go and prepare a pitch. We pitch him. And the guy says, ‘Sorry, James isn’t interested.’ I was really heartbroken. It was the first hot lead we’d had in a long time. And then I’m walking down the street in Los Angeles, and I get a call from a number I don’t recognize, and I say, ‘Hey, this is David.’ And this guy goes, ‘Hi, I’m Jim Patterson.’ And I’m like, ‘The author?’ He’s like, ‘Yes.’ And I’m like, ‘I’m very surprised to hear from you.’ He’s like, ‘I’m a surprising guy.’ [Laughs.] And he said, ‘If the timing works, I’d love to teach.’ And I was like, ‘Sir, I’m pretty confused right now, because I thought I just got a no.’ And he asked who I’d spoken to, and he was like, ‘I don’t know who the f*ck that person is.’

On how MasterClass compensates its all-star instructors:

It’s a mix of structure, but we want to make a deal where they share in the upside. It’s a mix of either a fee or a back-end [royalty].

Why some of MasterClass’s courses may seem similar but are distinct, in his view: 

With Martin Scorsese, we were talking to him about what does he want to teach and how, and he’s like, ‘The only way to learn film is to watch film.’ So I think it’s a total of eight hours where you are sitting with Martin Scorsese as he breaks down film. Compare that to Ron Howard, who did a classroom on directing and who’s like, ‘The last thing you want to do is watch film. What you have to do is actually make film.’

On the evolving revenue model of MasterClass, which used to center around charging $90 per class:

By the end of last year, it started being expensive to take our classes, and a big part of our goal is to make it possible for anybody in the world to learn from the absolute best. So we did lots of testing, and what we rolled out was, for $180 a year, you get access to everything, and that has just blown up. That’s now over 80 percent of our revenue, and we raised [that] $80 million [Series D round] off that success.

Rogier on the classes whose popularity has most surprised him:

I’m not surprised that a cooking class from Chef [Gordon] Ramsay does well, or that Steph Curry’s class does well. I’m surprised by some other folks. We have a class from a guy by the name of Deadmau5 . . . and that class is phenomenal. And it’s like a total surprise. He is [an electronic music producer] and for those who don’t know, he wears an actual mouse helmet because he’s afraid of people.

He literally can’t play music, so when he writes songs, he drags the notes on the screen until he hears the sound he likes. I mean, that’s a crazy way to write a song! But his classes on how to write the tracks do really well. Another we just launched, Chris Hadfield, the former commander of the International Space Station, [who teaches about space exploration] — he’s much less well-known but that’s also doing great. So the ones I’m surprised by are the ones that are lesser-known.

On how much of the classes are actually consumed, start to finish (and why):

The average MOOC sees 4 percent of people finish a class. Our rate are five to eight times that.

I really think online social education is stuck where it was when we were all in school when, if you actually want to make great compelling education, it should be just as engaging as watching a movie. We actually bring aboard a lot of filmmakers to help us make the class, beside educators, so as a result, we see much higher rates [regarding] how people engage.

But one of the most interesting things for us is that, because it’s not for school credit, you actually follow what you’re interested in. And so as a result of that — and this is a crazy stat — but roughly one-third of the people who start with the Steph Curry class on basketball end up taking a class on screenwriting. All of us have things were care truly, deeply in, but there are also things that you just want to know a bit about.

Users want that breadth . . .[In fact] we’re also going to go into business and how to run for office and how to actually govern. Over the next year, there will be lots of new categories.

Rogier on what MasterClass has learned about its customers’ consumption habits (whether they are viewing on their phones, in extended sittings, etc.):

Before we launched the $180 yearly subscription, it was: you watch it and you take notes. [The new model] has totally changed how people consume [MasterClass]. Oftentimes, they’re still at home in front of a big screen or the iPad. Also, they usually [view] it in chunks. So they sit down for half an hour and consume; they then come back and consume more. [Last] people seem to consume one class at a time. You go through as much as you’re going to go through with Chef Ramsay before [moving on].

On when MasterClass began spending on marketing and where:

My rule around paid marketing is to only spend it if you’re going to make money off it. It just happens to be that on social and on the web, it’s a great market for us, because we can target people who like photography. And you know, especially early on, this wasn’t a thing that you searched for you. You never searched for the idea: ‘Can I take a photo class from Annie Leibovitz.” But [online] has been a really effective channel for us.

On MasterClass’s target audience:

It’s a tricky question because we don’t really see trends across age or gender.  How we talk about internally is, before the subscription, a big chunk of [our customers] were actually pros. It was, I’m a professional in that category and I want to get better for my job. The second group was, I love this as a passion. What we’ve seen now since launching this all-access pass is a new group of people that people just love to learn and believes that, if I learn, my life will be better.


Source: TechCrunch

Honda's Helping GM on Its Quest to Deliver Self-Driving Cars

The Japanese automaker will help develop a new design for a self-driving vehicle, and pitch in $2.75 billion.
Source: Wired

How to 'Turn Off' the Presidential Emergency Text Alert Test

If you really don’t want to receive today’s emergency test text message, there’s one pretty simple workaround.
Source: Wired

Bumble to launch in India before year-end

On the heels of Tinder’s launch of a Bumble-like feature in India, which allows women to initiative the conversations, Bumble is today formally announcing its plans for an expansion into India. The company says it has been building up a local team in the region over the past nine months and defining its strategy. The app will be available later this fall, with marketing spend focused on major metropolitan regions.

Given that it’s already October, Bumble’s Indian arrival is only a matter of weeks at this point. While Bumble won’t commit to an exact launch date, it would say that the launch is planned for sometime before the end of the year.

The Indian market is a critical one, given the sizable population of over 1.3 billion and their rapid adoption of mobile devices. It’s been a battleground for device makers, like Apple, Samsung and Chinese brands, and bumped the U.S. to become the world’s second largest smartphone market last fall. All major tech companies are addressing the market as well, with “liteversions  of apps designed to save data, and other India-specific offerings.

In the dating space, it’s been more challenging for apps like Tinder and others, because of India’s traditional approach to dating and courtships, which in the past has involved concerns around parental acceptance, class differences and pre-arranged marriages. But India is changing. The country’s Supreme Court has been overturning colonial-era laws, and recently decriminalized same-sex relations and adultery, for example.

That’s paved the way for a number of dating apps including an extramarital affairs app Gleeden, matchmaking app Wingman, and LGBTQ dating app Grindr, The Economic Times reported.

Tinder, meanwhile, has established itself in the country to become the highest-grossing Android app, according to App Annie data.

For Bumble’s Indian launch, the company is partnering with actor, philanthropist and entrepreneur Priyanka Chopra (who also recently became engaged to Nick Jonas.) Chopra had worked with Bumble on the launch of Bumble Bizz, its business networking feature, which arrived last October.

“It’s rare to see a brand with this level of reach and relevance maintain a commitment to their values and mission in a manner that has global impact,” said Chopra, in a statement about her involvement in the Indian launch. “I’ve always believed that investing in women is key to social transformation and economic growth, and in working with Whitney and her team over the past year, I’m inspired by the real, positive change Bumble is creating and I’m proud to have the opportunity to contribute to this movement as a partner,” she added.

The Indian version of Bumble will be available in both Hinglish and Hindi for iOS and Android and will include yet-to-be-announced security features, beyond the photo verification and profile moderation offered today.

The move to launch in India comes at a time when Bumble and Tinder are head-to-head in a bitter rivalry. Bumble is now suing Tinder parent Match Group over fraudulently obtaining trade secrets, and Match is suing Bumble over patent infringement. The two companies have been unable to work out these differences and are headed to court.


Source: TechCrunch

MIT, Google, Cisco and USPTO create Prior Art Archive for better patents

The patent system is broken — there are too many ways to list here, really. The problems surrounding prior art are certainly among them, and a team of high profile companies and organizations are joining forces to address some of the these with the Prior Art Archive.

The database is a collaboration between MIT’s Media Lab, Google, Cisco and the United States Patent and Trademark Office, which certainly has the most to gain here. Using the MIT-hosted archive, patent applicants can find easily accessible examples of prior art and other technical information for reference.

“The patent examination process should stop patents from being issued on old or obvious technology,” MIT writes. “Unfortunately, just because technology is old doesn’t mean it is easy for a patent examiner to find. Particularly in the computer field, much prior art is in the form of old manuals, documentation, web sites, etc. that have, until now, not been readily searchable.”

Google also has a blog post detailing its own work with the archive, which mostly revolves around search. The company is also implementing AI and ML technologies to help bolster searches. “To this end,” the company writes, “we’ve recently created an open ecosystem, the Google Patents Public Datasets, to make large datasets available for empirical public policy, economics, and machine learning research.”


Source: TechCrunch

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910010110210310410510610710810911011111211311411511611711811912012112212312412512612712812913013113213313413513613713813914014114214314414514614714814915015115215315415515615715815916016116216316416516616716816917017117217317417517617717817918018118218318418518618718818919019119219319419519619719819920020120220320420520620720820921021121221321421521621721821922022122222322422522622722822923023123223323423523623723823924024124224324424524624724824925025125225325425525625725825926026126226326426526626726826927027127227327427527627727827928028128228328428528628728828929029129229329429529629729829930030130230330430530630730830931031131231331431531631731831932032132232332432532632732832933033133233333433533633733833934034134234334434534634734834935035135235335435535635735835936036136236336436536636736836937037137237337437537637737837938038138238338438538638738838939039139239339439539639739839940040140240340440540640740840941041141241341441541641741841942042142242342442542642742842943043143243343443543643743843944044144244344444544644744844945045145245345445545645745845946046146246346446546646746846947047147247347447547647747847948048148248348448548648748848949049149249349449549649749849950050150250350450550650750850951051151251351451551651751851952052152252352452552652752852953053153253353453553653753853954054154254354454554654754854955055155255355455555655755855956056156256356456556656756856957057157257357457557657757857958058158258358458558658758858959059159259359459559659759859960060160260360460560660760860961061161261361461561661761861962062162262362462562662762862963063163263363463563663763863964064164264364464564664764864965065165265365465565665765865966066166266366466566666766866967067167267367467567667767867968068168268368468568668768868969069169269369469569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571671771871972072172272372472572672772872973073173273373473573673773873974074174274374474574674774874975075175275375475575675775875976076176276376476576676776876977077177277377477577677777877978078178278378478578678778878979079179279379479579679779879980080180280380480580680780880981081181281381481581681781881982082182282382482582682782882983083183283383483583683783883984084184284384484584684784884985085185285385485585685785885986086186286386486586686786886987087187287387487587687787887988088188288388488588688788888989089189289389489589689789889990090190290390490590690790890991091191291391491591691791891992092192292392492592692792892993093193293393493593693793893994094194294394494594694794894995095195295395495595695795895996096196296396496596696796896997097197297397497597697797897998098198298398498598698798898999099199299399499599699799899910001001100210031004100510061007100810091010101110121013101410151016101710181019102010211022102310241025102610271028102910301031103210331034103510361037103810391040104110421043104410451046104710481049105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107110721073107410751076107710781079108010811082108310841085108610871088108910901091109210931094109510961097109810991100110111021103110411051106110711081109111011111112111311141115111611171118111911201121112211231124112511261127112811291130113111321133113411351136113711381139114011411142114311441145114611471148114911501151115211531154115511561157115811591160116111621163116411651166116711681169117011711172117311741175117611771178117911801181118211831184118511861187118811891190119111921193119411951196119711981199120012011202120312041205120612071208120912101211121212131214121512161217121812191220122112221223122412251226122712281229123012311232123312341235123612371238123912401241124212431244124512461247124812491250125112521253125412551256125712581259126012611262126312641265126612671268126912701271127212731274127512761277127812791280128112821283128412851286128712881289129012911292129312941295129612971298129913001301130213031304130513061307130813091310131113121313131413151316131713181319132013211322132313241325132613271328132913301331133213331334133513361337133813391340134113421343134413451346134713481349135013511352135313541355135613571358135913601361136213631364136513661367136813691370137113721373137413751376137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388138913901391139213931394139513961397139813991400140114021403140414051406140714081409141014111412141314141415141614171418141914201421142214231424142514261427142814291430143114321433143414351436143714381439144014411442144314441445144614471448144914501451145214531454145514561457145814591460146114621463146414651466146714681469147014711472147314741475147614771478147914801481148214831484148514861487148814891490149114921493149414951496149714981499150015011502150315041505150615071508150915101511151215131514151515161517151815191520152115221523152415251526152715281529153015311532153315341535153615371538153915401541154215431544154515461547154815491550155115521553155415551556155715581559156015611562156315641565156615671568156915701571157215731574157515761577157815791580158115821583158415851586158715881589159015911592159315941595159615971598159916001601160216031604160516061607160816091610161116121613161416151616161716181619162016211622162316241625162616271628162916301631163216331634163516361637163816391640164116421643164416451646164716481649165016511652165316541655165616571658165916601661166216631664166516661667166816691670167116721673167416751676167716781679168016811682168316841685168616871688168916901691169216931694169516961697169816991700170117021703170417051706170717081709171017111712171317141715171617171718171917201721172217231724172517261727172817291730173117321733173417351736173717381739174017411742174317441745174617471748174917501751175217531754175517561757175817591760176117621763176417651766176717681769177017711772177317741775177617771778177917801781178217831784178517861787178817891790179117921793179417951796179717981799180018011802180318041805180618071808180918101811181218131814181518161817181818191820182118221823182418251826182718281829183018311832183318341835183618371838183918401841184218431844184518461847184818491850185118521853185418551856185718581859186018611862186318641865186618671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021202220232024202520262027202820292030203120322033203420352036203720382039204020412042204320442045204620472048204920502051205220532054205520562057205820592060206120622063206420652066206720682069207020712072207320742075207620772078207920802081208220832084208520862087208820892090209120922093209420952096209720982099210021012102210321042105210621072108210921102111211221132114211521162117211821192120212121222123212421252126212721282129213021312132213321342135213621372138213921402141214221432144214521462147214821492150215121522153215421552156215721582159216021612162216321642165216621672168216921702171217221732174217521762177217821792180218121822183218421852186218721882189219021912192219321942195219621972198219922002201220222032204220522062207220822092210221122122213221422152216221722182219222022212222222322242225222622272228222922302231223222332234223522362237223822392240224122422243224422452246224722482249225022512252225322542255225622572258225922602261226222632264226522662267226822692270227122722273227422752276227722782279228022812282228322842285228622872288228922902291229222932294229522962297229822992300230123022303230423052306230723082309231023112312231323142315231623172318231923202321232223232324232523262327232823292330233123322333233423352336233723382339234023412342234323442345234623472348234923502351235223532354235523562357235823592360236123622363236423652366236723682369237023712372237323742375237623772378237923802381238223832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072408240924102411241224132414241524162417241824192420242124222423242424252426242724282429243024312432243324342435243624372438243924402441244224432444244524462447244824492450245124522453245424552456245724582459246024612462246324642465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249624972498249925002501250225032504250525062507250825092510251125122513251425152516251725182519252025212522252325242525252625272528252925302531253225332534253525362537253825392540254125422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561256225632564256525662567256825692570257125722573257425752576257725782579258025812582258325842585258625872588258925902591259225932594259525962597259825992600260126022603260426052606260726082609261026112612261326142615261626172618261926202621262226232624262526262627262826292630263126322633263426352636263726382639264026412642264326442645264626472648264926502651265226532654265526562657265826592660266126622663266426652666266726682669267026712672267326742675267626772678267926802681268226832684268526862687268826892690269126922693269426952696269726982699270027012702270327042705270627072708270927102711271227132714271527162717271827192720272127222723272427252726272727282729273027312732273327342735273627372738273927402741274227432744274527462747274827492750275127522753275427552756275727582759276027612762276327642765276627672768276927702771277227732774277527762777277827792780278127822783278427852786278727882789279027912792279327942795279627972798279928002801280228032804280528062807280828092810281128122813281428152816281728182819282028212822282328242825282628272828282928302831283228332834283528362837283828392840284128422843284428452846284728482849285028512852285328542855285628572858285928602861286228632864286528662867286828692870287128722873287428752876287728782879288028812882288328842885288628872888288928902891289228932894289528962897289828992900290129022903290429052906290729082909291029112912291329142915291629172918291929202921292229232924292529262927292829292930293129322933293429352936293729382939294029412942294329442945294629472948294929502951295229532954295529562957295829592960296129622963296429652966296729682969297029712972297329742975297629772978297929802981298229832984298529862987298829892990299129922993299429952996299729982999300030013002300330043005300630073008300930103011301230133014301530163017301830193020302130223023302430253026302730283029303030313032303330343035303630373038303930403041304230433044304530463047304830493050305130523053305430553056305730583059306030613062306330643065306630673068306930703071307230733074307530763077307830793080308130823083308430853086308730883089309030913092309330943095309630973098309931003101310231033104310531063107310831093110311131123113311431153116311731183119312031213122312331243125312631273128312931303131313231333134313531363137313831393140314131423143314431453146314731483149315031513152315331543155315631573158315931603161316231633164316531663167316831693170317131723173317431753176317731783179318031813182318331843185318631873188318931903191319231933194319531963197319831993200320132023203320432053206320732083209321032113212321332143215321632173218321932203221322232233224322532263227322832293230323132323233323432353236323732383239324032413242324332443245324632473248324932503251325232533254325532563257325832593260326132623263326432653266326732683269327032713272327332743275327632773278327932803281328232833284328532863287328832893290329132923293329432953296329732983299330033013302330333043305330633073308330933103311331233133314331533163317331833193320332133223323332433253326332733283329333033313332333333343335333633373338333933403341334233433344334533463347334833493350335133523353335433553356335733583359336033613362336333643365336633673368336933703371337233733374337533763377337833793380338133823383338433853386338733883389339033913392339333943395339633973398339934003401340234033404340534063407340834093410341134123413341434153416341734183419342034213422342334243425342634273428342934303431343234333434343534363437343834393440344134423443344434453446344734483449345034513452345334543455345634573458345934603461346234633464346534663467346834693470347134723473347434753476347734783479348034813482348334843485348634873488348934903491349234933494349534963497349834993500350135023503350435053506350735083509351035113512351335143515351635173518351935203521352235233524352535263527352835293530353135323533353435353536353735383539354035413542354335443545354635473548354935503551355235533554355535563557355835593560356135623563356435653566356735683569357035713572357335743575357635773578357935803581358235833584358535863587358835893590359135923593359435953596359735983599360036013602360336043605360636073608360936103611361236133614361536163617361836193620362136223623362436253626362736283629363036313632363336343635363636373638363936403641364236433644364536463647364836493650365136523653365436553656365736583659366036613662366336643665366636673668366936703671367236733674367536763677367836793680368136823683368436853686368736883689369036913692369336943695369636973698369937003701370237033704370537063707370837093710371137123713371437153716371737183719372037213722372337243725372637273728372937303731373237333734373537363737373837393740374137423743374437453746374737483749375037513752375337543755375637573758375937603761376237633764376537663767376837693770377137723773377437753776377737783779378037813782378337843785378637873788378937903791379237933794379537963797379837993800380138023803380438053806380738083809381038113812381338143815381638173818381938203821382238233824382538263827382838293830383138323833383438353836383738383839384038413842384338443845384638473848384938503851385238533854385538563857385838593860386138623863386438653866386738683869387038713872387338743875387638773878387938803881388238833884388538863887388838893890389138923893389438953896389738983899390039013902390339043905390639073908390939103911391239133914391539163917391839193920392139223923392439253926392739283929393039313932393339343935393639373938393939403941394239433944394539463947394839493950395139523953395439553956395739583959396039613962396339643965396639673968396939703971397239733974397539763977397839793980398139823983398439853986398739883989399039913992399339943995399639973998399940004001400240034004400540064007400840094010401140124013401440154016401740184019402040214022402340244025402640274028402940304031403240334034403540364037403840394040404140424043404440454046404740484049405040514052405340544055405640574058405940604061406240634064406540664067406840694070407140724073407440754076407740784079408040814082408340844085408640874088408940904091409240934094409540964097409840994100410141024103410441054106410741084109411041114112411341144115411641174118411941204121412241234124412541264127412841294130413141324133413441354136413741384139414041414142414341444145414641474148414941504151415241534154415541564157415841594160416141624163416441654166416741684169417041714172417341744175417641774178417941804181418241834184418541864187418841894190419141924193419441954196419741984199420042014202420342044205420642074208420942104211421242134214421542164217421842194220422142224223422442254226422742284229423042314232423342344235423642374238423942404241424242434244424542464247424842494250425142524253425442554256425742584259426042614262426342644265426642674268426942704271427242734274427542764277427842794280428142824283428442854286428742884289429042914292429342944295429642974298429943004301430243034304430543064307430843094310431143124313431443154316431743184319432043214322432343244325432643274328432943304331433243334334433543364337433843394340434143424343434443454346434743484349435043514352435343544355435643574358435943604361436243634364436543664367436843694370437143724373437443754376437743784379438043814382438343844385438643874388438943904391439243934394439543964397439843994400440144024403440444054406440744084409441044114412441344144415441644174418441944204421442244234424442544264427442844294430443144324433443444354436443744384439444044414442444344444445444644474448444944504451445244534454445544564457445844594460446144624463446444654466446744684469447044714472447344744475447644774478447944804481448244834484448544864487448844894490449144924493449444954496449744984499450045014502450345044505450645074508450945104511451245134514451545164517451845194520452145224523452445254526452745284529453045314532453345344535453645374538453945404541454245434544454545464547454845494550455145524553455445554556455745584559456045614562456345644565456645674568456945704571457245734574457545764577457845794580458145824583458445854586458745884589459045914592459345944595459645974598459946004601460246034604460546064607460846094610461146124613461446154616461746184619462046214622462346244625462646274628462946304631463246334634463546364637463846394640464146424643464446454646464746484649465046514652465346544655465646574658465946604661466246634664466546664667466846694670467146724673467446754676467746784679468046814682468346844685468646874688468946904691469246934694469546964697469846994700470147024703470447054706470747084709471047114712471347144715471647174718471947204721472247234724472547264727472847294730473147324733473447354736473747384739474047414742474347444745474647474748474947504751475247534754475547564757475847594760476147624763476447654766476747684769477047714772477347744775477647774778477947804781478247834784478547864787478847894790479147924793479447954796479747984799480048014802480348044805480648074808480948104811481248134814481548164817481848194820482148224823482448254826482748284829483048314832483348344835483648374838483948404841484248434844484548464847484848494850485148524853485448554856485748584859486048614862486348644865486648674868486948704871487248734874487548764877487848794880488148824883488448854886488748884889489048914892489348944895489648974898489949004901490249034904490549064907490849094910491149124913491449154916491749184919492049214922492349244925492649274928492949304931493249334934493549364937493849394940494149424943494449454946494749484949495049514952495349544955495649574958495949604961496249634964496549664967496849694970497149724973497449754976497749784979498049814982498349844985498649874988498949904991499249934994499549964997499849995000500150025003500450055006500750085009501050115012501350145015501650175018501950205021502250235024502550265027502850295030503150325033503450355036503750385039504050415042504350445045504650475048504950505051505250535054505550565057505850595060506150625063506450655066506750685069507050715072507350745075507650775078507950805081508250835084508550865087508850895090509150925093509450955096509750985099510051015102510351045105510651075108510951105111511251135114511551165117511851195120512151225123512451255126512751285129513051315132513351345135513651375138513951405141514251435144514551465147514851495150515151525153515451555156515751585159516051615162516351645165516651675168516951705171517251735174517551765177517851795180518151825183518451855186518751885189519051915192519351945195519651975198519952005201520252035204520552065207520852095210521152125213521452155216521752185219522052215222522352245225522652275228522952305231523252335234523552365237523852395240524152425243524452455246524752485249525052515252525352545255525652575258525952605261526252635264526552665267526852695270527152725273527452755276527752785279528052815282528352845285528652875288528952905291529252935294529552965297529852995300530153025303530453055306530753085309531053115312531353145315531653175318531953205321532253235324532553265327532853295330533153325333533453355336533753385339534053415342534353445345534653475348534953505351535253535354535553565357535853595360536153625363536453655366536753685369537053715372537353745375537653775378537953805381538253835384538553865387538853895390539153925393539453955396539753985399540054015402540354045405540654075408540954105411541254135414541554165417541854195420542154225423542454255426542754285429543054315432543354345435543654375438543954405441544254435444544554465447544854495450545154525453545454555456545754585459546054615462546354645465546654675468546954705471547254735474547554765477547854795480548154825483548454855486548754885489549054915492549354945495549654975498549955005501550255035504550555065507550855095510551155125513551455155516551755185519552055215522552355245525552655275528552955305531553255335534553555365537553855395540554155425543554455455546554755485549555055515552555355545555555655575558555955605561556255635564556555665567556855695570557155725573557455755576557755785579558055815582558355845585558655875588558955905591559255935594