• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

US rule changes could mean more startups would need government approval to hire immigrants

Big changes in DC could mean that more startups will need the government’s permission before foreign nationals do work at the company. In some cases, the foreign national will need to leave the company if the government is wary of granting that permission. 

This is tied up in the same new law that gave a once obscure government body—CFIUS—enhanced abilities to scrutinize minority, non-controlling investments by foreign entities. 

CFIUS changes have grabbed most of the headlines, but a Commerce Department process to define “emerging technologies” could have a huge effect on startups that employ foreign nationals.

Here’s what you need to know: the U.S. government has long controlled exports of sensitive technology for national security reasons. This is done through the export controls regime, which impacts things like arms and ammunition, but also telecommunications and encryption software, among other items. 

Today, many venture-backed companies are not impacted by export controls because their technology is not on one of the control lists. But that stands to change soon. 

Recent legislation requires the Commerce Department to evaluate controls on “emerging technologies.”  To kick off this process, in November the government identified 14 categories of technology it is looking at. This included tech in the sweet spot of the bat for venture: AI/ML, robotics, 3D printing, and biotechnology to name a few. It is an open question as to which of these technologies will ultimately be subject to controls and to what degree.

Image: Bryce Durbin/TechCrunch

Once something is determined to be emerging technology, the government can establish controls on the export, re-export, or transfer (in-country) of that technology. Export controls is often thought of as the need to get a license from the government before sending a technology outside the U.S., and that is indeed a major part of what startups will need to contend with. 

But perhaps far more impactful for the startup ecosystem is what’s called “deemed exports,” or the release of controlled technology to foreign persons situated in the United States, which is “deemed” to be an export to the person’s country or countries of nationality. 

“The ramifications of these changes could be tremendous if the government does not appropriately tailor what it means to be an emerging technology.”

“Release” is defined broadly to include visual inspection and oral or written exchanges regarding the technology; in other words, typical actions an engineer or scientist at a young company does. One saving grace for some startups will be that the deemed export rule does not apply to green card holders, though does apply to employer-based visas, like the H-1B or O visa.

Let’s think about how this might play out in practice. Imagine the government decides to control artificial intelligence as an emerging technology and that a U.S.-based AI company employs an engineer on an H-1B visa. Under these facts, it seems the company would need an export license for the foreign national to work at the company. 

A large company might be able to set up a wall that allows the foreign national to work on non-emerging technologies, but for a startup that only does AI the ability to separate the foreign national from the emerging technology work is severely limited, if not impossible.

Obtaining these licenses would present a tremendous burden for small, high-growth startups that often build teams by attracting the best and brightest from foreign countries.

But that burden could be the least of the company’s problems if the foreign national is from a country like China. The U.S. government could be very reluctant to grant a license for someone from China to work on an emerging technology since the major motivation behind recent foreign investment scrutiny has been China. The result might be the foreign national has to leave the company entirely, exacerbating the severe talent drought in some disciplines.

IvancoVlad via Getty Images

Those working in the startup ecosystem understand the volume of foreign nationals working at high-growth companies, but also how impactful their work is to make the United States the world’s scientific and technological leader. 

In comments to the government, a consortium of life science investors backing companies in oncology, cystic fibrosis, anemia, and other areas sounded the alarm of how deemed exports could make laboratory collaboration between U.S. and foreign nationals difficult or impossible. Certainly, this is not the result policymakers are shooting for given the public policy imperative of eradicating diseases. The ramifications of these changes could be tremendous if the government does not appropriately tailor what it means to be an emerging technology.

Comments from the National Venture Capital Association, where I work, stressed that many of the technologies the Commerce Department called out in November are not yet well-defined, which of course makes regulating them challenging. 

In addition, because many of the technologies—like AI/ML—will be widely used across many companies and industries, a broad set of controls could sweep in many unintended target companies and technologies. To alleviate these concerns, we recommended a targeted approach to classification of emerging technologies that categorizes only those technologies that have significant defense uses, and not broad commercial applications.

The U.S. government needs to tread carefully. 

The golf professional Sam Snead advised that a golf club needs to be gripped like you’re holding a live bird: firm enough so it doesn’t fly out of your hands but not so tight that you kill it. American innovation is the same in this way. 

Yes, policymakers need to consider the impact of emerging technology on national security and perhaps create some controls. But if policymakers ratchet up pressure too much, then talent, capital, and companies will flock to other countries, which means the United States loses out on the incredible benefits that high-growth startups bring to our country. The rules of the road on emerging technologies have not been written, and each of us has an opportunity to make our voice heard during the process.


Source: TechCrunch

F5 acquires NGINX for $670M to move into open-source, multi-cloud services

Multi-cloud architecture is a huge trend in enterprise, and today F5 made a big move to bring its own business closer to it. The company, which provides cloud and security application services, announced that it has acquired NGINX, the commercial company behind the popular open-source web server, for $670 million.

We’d actually been hearing murmurs of this acquisition for a while, with a price tag of around $700 million. On top of that, our sources say NGINX was shopping itself around, and other companies that had been looking at it included Citrix. That deal fell apart on price.

NGINX had last raised money nine months ago, a $43 million round led by Goldman Sachs to fuel expansion, and had positioned itself as a strong alternative to F5 in recent years. (It had not disclosed its valuation in that round.) F5 itself, by coincidence, was said to have retained Goldman Sachs in 2016 to field acquisition interest in itself, although that never led to anything.

“F5’s acquisition of NGINX strengthens our growth trajectory by accelerating our software and multi-cloud transformation,” said François Locoh-Donou, president and CEO of F5, in a statement. “By bringing F5’s world-class application security and rich application services portfolio for improving performance, availability, and management together with NGINX’s leading software application delivery and API management solutions, unparalleled credibility and brand recognition in the DevOps community, and massive open source user base, we bridge the divide between NetOps and DevOps with consistent application services across an enterprise’s multi-cloud environment.”

Indeed, our sources noted that growth had stalled somewhat at the company, which was one reason for its interest in NGINX. F5 had a market cap of $9.6 billion at the close of markets today. In its last quarterly earnings, the company said its revenues had grown just four percent compared to the year before. NGINX meanwhile has been a juggernaut in providing open-source tools for maintaining and running websites since first emerging in 2004 as an alternative to Apache. The company currently runs 375 million websites with some 1,500 paying customers taking additional services, like support, load balancing, and API gateway and analytics.

F5 said that it will be merging its own operations with those of NGINX, with current NGINX CEO Gus Robertson and founders Igor Syosev and Maxim Konovalov all joining the company.

“NGINX and F5 share the same mission and vision. We both believe applications are at the heart of driving digital transformation. And we both believe that an end-to-end application infrastructure—one that spans from code to customer—is needed to deliver apps across a multi-cloud environment,” said Robertson, in a statement. “I’m excited to continue this journey by adding the power of NGINX’s open source innovation to F5’s ADC leadership and enterprise reach. F5 gains depth with solutions designed for DevOps, while NGINX gains breadth with access to tens of thousands of customers and partners.”

 


Source: TechCrunch

OpenAI shifts from nonprofit to ‘capped-profit’ to attract capital

OpenAI may not be quite so open going forward. The former nonprofit announced today that it is restructuring as a “capped-profit” company that cuts returns from investments past a certain point. But some worry that this move — or rather the way they made it — may result in making the innovative company no different from the other AI startups out there.

From now on, profits from any investment in the OpenAI LP (limited partnership, not limited profit) will be passed on to an overarching nonprofit company, which will disperse them as it sees fit. Profits in excess of a 100x return, that is.

In simplified terms, if you invested $10 million today, the profit cap will come into play only after that $10 million has generated $1 billion in returns. You can see why some people are concerned that this structure is “limited” in name only.

In a blog post, OpenAI explained the rationale behind its decision:

We’ll need to invest billions of dollars in upcoming years into large-scale cloud compute, attracting and retaining talented people, and building AI supercomputers.

We want to increase our ability to raise capital while still serving our mission, and no pre-existing legal structure we know of strikes the right balance. Our solution is to create OpenAI LP as a hybrid of a for-profit and nonprofit—which we are calling a “capped-profit” company.

Essentially, the company is admitting that it was unlikely to raise the money necessary to achieve its goals while operating as a nonprofit — which, as you can imagine, investors see no immediate returns on. (Although it’s possible to make money on spin-offs and other sub-businesses, putting money into a nonprofit isn’t really a lucrative move.)

Less money wouldn’t be as big a problem if OpenAI were not competing with the likes of Google and Amazon for specialists in artificial intelligence, cloud computing and so on. The cost of development is also quite high.

This of course was also true (though perhaps less acute) in 2015 when OpenAI was started. Yet as the founders wrote then:

Our goal is to advance digital intelligence in the way that is most likely to benefit humanity as a whole, unconstrained by a need to generate financial return. Since our research is free from financial obligations, we can better focus on a positive human impact.

That doesn’t leave a lot of room for interpretation!

But having said that, OpenAI isn’t the first nonprofit to stumble on the money issue; the simple fact is that it’s hard to outspend global megacorps in a field where success is at least partly determined by budget. And in a way, perhaps they reasoned, isn’t being profitable sort of being “free from financial obligations?” Think about it.

The new structure has OpenAI LP doing the actual work the company is known for: doing interesting and perhaps widely applicable AI research, occasionally withheld in order to save the world.

But the LP will be “governed” by OpenAI Inc., AKA OpenAI Nonprofit (this structure is explained a bit more below). Profits emerging from the LP in excess of the 100x multiplier go to the nonprofit, which will use it to run educational programs and advocacy work.

The company justifies this rather high profit “cap” by saying that if it succeeds in creating a working artificial general intelligence (AGI is a poorly defined concept that is nonetheless perhaps the Holy Grail of current AI research), “we expect to generate orders of magnitude more value than we’d owe to people who invest in or work at OpenAI LP.”

OpenAI’s logo

It’s a little like offering great terms on Martian real estate (buy now before it’s crowded!). Whether these are the words of confidence workers, or merely confident ones, is pretty much entirely a matter of opinion. AGI is nowhere near being achieved or the idea even properly understood, as any researcher will tell you, but if it can be achieved it is far more likely to be done by people on the leading edge who have access to large budgets and enormous computing resources.

As chief scientist Ilya Sutskever put it in a Reddit comment moments ago: “There is no way of staying at the cutting edge of AI research, let alone building AGI, without us massively increasing our compute investment.” Whatever AGI is, it won’t come cheap.

All the same, the 100x number seems like rather a large jump. Many of the same goals might have been achieved with a 10x or 20x multiplier, which would allow for huge returns without near-term profits appearing to be unlimited in practice. Future rounds will in fact be offered at a smaller multiplier; this one is meant to be a carrot for investors willing to tolerate a bit more risk.

But it has rubbed some the wrong way, and it’s easy to understand grumbling that the company that not long ago said it wanted to be “unconstrained by a need to generate financial return” will now make decisions very much informed by that need. How does that differ from the megacorps with which OpenAI has attempted to contrast itself?

The CEO of the whole operation is Sam Altman, who stepped down as chairman at Y Combinator just days ago, leading speculation that he was upping his involvement in another concern; now we know which.

Policy director for OpenAI (though for which, who can say?) Jack Clark explained in a bit more detail in an email to TechCrunch.

“In practice, You should think about OpenAI as being led on research and technology by Ilya Sutskever (chief scientist) and Greg Brockman (CTO), with Sam helping out on other aspects of management,” he wrote. “We’ve all been working together for a while, so this isn’t much of a shift internally.”

The board consists of OpenAI’s Brockman, Sutskever and Altman, original investor but non-employee Reid Hoffman, as well as Adam D’Angelo, Holden Karnofsky, Sue Yoon and Tasha McCauley. Notably Elon Musk isn’t a part of it, though he was a big investor and proponent early on; he departed more than a year back on good terms.

The board is limited to a minority of financially interested parties, and only non-interested members can vote on “decisions where the interests of limited partners and OpenAI Nonprofit’s mission may conflict,” the announcement noted. So theoretically the keys to the safe are in the hands of those who have no incentive to rifle it. Clark noted that “we’ve been talking to everyone involved for more than a year about this, so everyone was aware.”

OpenAI LP, which we will likely end up just calling OpenAI, will continue its work uninterrupted, it says, even “at increased pace and scale.” So you can expect important papers and work like it has published before, though from now on you will be much more justified in attributing a profit motive to it.


Source: TechCrunch

Report: Google’s Waymo seeks outside investment and a sky-high valuation

Alphabet’s self-driving vehicle subsidiary Waymo may raise outside capital for the first time at a valuation “at least several times” that of Cruise, the General Motors-owned autonomous vehicle business worth nearly $15 billion, according to a report published by The Information on Monday.

We’ve reached out to our sources to confirm. Waymo didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment.

Waymo, which is currently celebrating its 10-year anniversary, is a cash-intensive unit. Raising capital from outside investors, a move said to be encouraged by chief financial officer Ruth Porat, would help limit costs and would allow Alphabet the opportunity to display Waymo’s valuation for the first time in several years. Alphabet, however, does not want to relinquish too much equity in the business, formerly known as “Project Chauffeur,” per The Information’s reporting.

Waymo, years ago, was valued at $4.5 billion, though analysts claim it could surpass a valuation as high as $175 billion based on future revenue estimates. For context, a valuation north of $100 billion puts Waymo significantly ahead of Uber, Tesla, GM and Ford.

Google, currently touting an $817 billion market cap, can afford to support Waymo. This, however, is not the search engine’s first time seeking third-party investors for its very own moonshot bets rather than continuing to deploy solely its own capital to the businesses. Both Verily, a Google-owned life sciences research and engineering organization, and Makani, a wind energy business also spun out of Google X, have sold equity to Silver Lake and Shell, respectively.

Cruise, for its part, has similarly sought outside capital since being acquired by GM in 2016 for $581 million. In mid-2018, The Vision Fund invested $2.25 billion in Cruise, giving SoftBank a nearly 20 percent stake in GM’s self-driving business.

Waymo became a standalone business in 2016 and is today managed by chief executive officer John Krafcik, Porat and chief technology officer Dmitri Dolgov. The company made headlines late last year when it launched Waymo One, a commercial robotaxi service in the Phoenix area — its first profitable endeavor. More recently, Waymo announced it would sell its custom light detection and ranging sensors, or LiDAR, to companies outside the self-driving car industry in another move toward profitability.

According to estimates, Waymo could book $114 billion in revenue in 2030.


Source: TechCrunch

Apple's March 25 Event Will Be Its Biggest One This Year

Services will define the future of the company.
Source: Wired

The World Wide Web Turns 30. Where Does It Go From Here?

Thirty years ago, Tim Berners-Lee published a proposal that led to the World Wide Web. Today, he reflects on its history—and its future.
Source: Wired

Former Apple engineer says Qualcomm tech was his idea but doesn't claim patent – CNET

Apple has argued he co-invented the tech and should be named on the patent.
Source: CNET

DirecTV Now to add HBO, raise prices by $10 a month, report says – CNET

Packages will now cost $50 and $70 a month, according to Cord Cutters News.
Source: CNET

Apple's next event is on March 25, teasing a 'show time' announcement – CNET

Apple’s long-rumored streaming service might be revealed.
Source: CNET

Andreessen Horowitz is making the move to San Francisco at long last

One of the last top-tier venture firms to resist coming to San Francisco has apparently decided that it’s time to make the move. According to a source familiar with the thinking of Andreessen Horowitz, the firm is opening up a San Francisco office later this year.

The WSJ had reported on Friday that the firm has signed a leasing agreement to move into 180 Townsend Street in the city’s China Basin neighborhood, not far from where the San Francisco Giants play baseball. (The park was known until January as AT&T Park; it has since been renamed Oracle Park.)

Our source says that the firm will not be shuttering its expansive offices on Sand Hill Road, where it set up shop immediately after opening up for business in 2009. This person adds that a16z, as the firm is known, doesn’t plan to rent out an entire building. (Worth noting: 180 Townsend features more than 41,000 square feet.)

The move is notable, even amid a years-long trend of Silicon Valley venture capital firms that have opened offices in San Francisco and, in doing so, shifting the industry’s center of gravity 45 minutes north.

True Ventures was among the earliest venture firms to come to the city, originally setting up operations along the city’s waterfront and later moving its office to the popular South Park neighborhood, which is also now home to Kleiner Perkins, Accel, General Catalyst, and New Enterprise Associates, among others.

Firms have also turned the city’s Jackson Square neighborhood, roughly 1.5 miles away, on the other side of San Francisco’s financial district. Among those tenants: Jackson Square Ventures, NextWorld Capital, Catamount Ventures, and Sway Ventures.

Andreessen Horowitz has long seemed happy to exclusively operate out of Menlo Park, not opening another regional office, and not entertaining the idea of opening a New York office, even as many of its peers were doing so years ago.

Our source says the firm began thinking more seriously about opening a second space in San Francisco at least a year ago before more recently deciding to pull the trigger. Undoubtedly, it will ease a long commute for some of its 150 employees, many of whom live in the city and will be dividing their time between both offices once its San Francisco location opens.

Clearly, the firm also wants to get closer to the founders it works with — and wants to work with — many of whom also prefer San Francisco to sleepier, if less crowded, parts south.

Leasing commercial space in San Francisco is as pricey as it has even been. As the WSJ noted, citing data from the real estate group Cushman & Wakefield, office rent in San Francisco reached a record  $75.57 per square foot in the fourth quarter of 2018, up 6.4 percent from the same period in 2017.

In addition to Andreessen Horowitz, Y Combinator looks likely to move to San Francisco this year; as we reported last week, the investment firm and accelerator program is currently searching for the right space to set up shop.


Source: TechCrunch

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910010110210310410510610710810911011111211311411511611711811912012112212312412512612712812913013113213313413513613713813914014114214314414514614714814915015115215315415515615715815916016116216316416516616716816917017117217317417517617717817918018118218318418518618718818919019119219319419519619719819920020120220320420520620720820921021121221321421521621721821922022122222322422522622722822923023123223323423523623723823924024124224324424524624724824925025125225325425525625725825926026126226326426526626726826927027127227327427527627727827928028128228328428528628728828929029129229329429529629729829930030130230330430530630730830931031131231331431531631731831932032132232332432532632732832933033133233333433533633733833934034134234334434534634734834935035135235335435535635735835936036136236336436536636736836937037137237337437537637737837938038138238338438538638738838939039139239339439539639739839940040140240340440540640740840941041141241341441541641741841942042142242342442542642742842943043143243343443543643743843944044144244344444544644744844945045145245345445545645745845946046146246346446546646746846947047147247347447547647747847948048148248348448548648748848949049149249349449549649749849950050150250350450550650750850951051151251351451551651751851952052152252352452552652752852953053153253353453553653753853954054154254354454554654754854955055155255355455555655755855956056156256356456556656756856957057157257357457557657757857958058158258358458558658758858959059159259359459559659759859960060160260360460560660760860961061161261361461561661761861962062162262362462562662762862963063163263363463563663763863964064164264364464564664764864965065165265365465565665765865966066166266366466566666766866967067167267367467567667767867968068168268368468568668768868969069169269369469569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571671771871972072172272372472572672772872973073173273373473573673773873974074174274374474574674774874975075175275375475575675775875976076176276376476576676776876977077177277377477577677777877978078178278378478578678778878979079179279379479579679779879980080180280380480580680780880981081181281381481581681781881982082182282382482582682782882983083183283383483583683783883984084184284384484584684784884985085185285385485585685785885986086186286386486586686786886987087187287387487587687787887988088188288388488588688788888989089189289389489589689789889990090190290390490590690790890991091191291391491591691791891992092192292392492592692792892993093193293393493593693793893994094194294394494594694794894995095195295395495595695795895996096196296396496596696796896997097197297397497597697797897998098198298398498598698798898999099199299399499599699799899910001001100210031004100510061007100810091010101110121013101410151016101710181019102010211022102310241025102610271028102910301031103210331034103510361037103810391040104110421043104410451046104710481049105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107110721073107410751076107710781079108010811082108310841085108610871088108910901091109210931094109510961097109810991100110111021103110411051106110711081109111011111112111311141115111611171118111911201121112211231124112511261127112811291130113111321133113411351136113711381139114011411142114311441145114611471148114911501151115211531154115511561157115811591160116111621163116411651166116711681169117011711172117311741175117611771178117911801181118211831184118511861187118811891190119111921193119411951196119711981199120012011202120312041205120612071208120912101211121212131214121512161217121812191220122112221223122412251226122712281229123012311232123312341235123612371238123912401241124212431244124512461247124812491250125112521253125412551256125712581259126012611262126312641265126612671268126912701271127212731274127512761277127812791280128112821283128412851286128712881289129012911292129312941295129612971298129913001301130213031304130513061307130813091310131113121313131413151316131713181319132013211322132313241325132613271328132913301331133213331334133513361337133813391340134113421343134413451346134713481349135013511352135313541355135613571358135913601361136213631364136513661367136813691370137113721373137413751376137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388138913901391139213931394139513961397139813991400140114021403140414051406140714081409141014111412141314141415141614171418141914201421142214231424142514261427142814291430143114321433143414351436143714381439144014411442144314441445144614471448144914501451145214531454145514561457145814591460146114621463146414651466146714681469147014711472147314741475147614771478147914801481148214831484148514861487148814891490149114921493149414951496149714981499150015011502150315041505150615071508150915101511151215131514151515161517151815191520152115221523152415251526152715281529153015311532153315341535153615371538153915401541154215431544154515461547154815491550155115521553155415551556155715581559156015611562156315641565156615671568156915701571157215731574157515761577157815791580158115821583158415851586158715881589159015911592159315941595159615971598159916001601160216031604160516061607160816091610161116121613161416151616161716181619162016211622162316241625162616271628162916301631163216331634163516361637163816391640164116421643164416451646164716481649165016511652165316541655165616571658165916601661166216631664166516661667166816691670167116721673167416751676167716781679168016811682168316841685168616871688168916901691169216931694169516961697169816991700170117021703170417051706170717081709171017111712171317141715171617171718171917201721172217231724172517261727172817291730173117321733173417351736173717381739174017411742174317441745174617471748174917501751175217531754175517561757175817591760176117621763176417651766176717681769177017711772177317741775177617771778177917801781178217831784178517861787178817891790179117921793179417951796179717981799180018011802180318041805180618071808180918101811181218131814181518161817181818191820182118221823182418251826182718281829183018311832183318341835183618371838183918401841184218431844184518461847184818491850185118521853185418551856185718581859186018611862186318641865186618671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021202220232024202520262027202820292030203120322033203420352036203720382039204020412042204320442045204620472048204920502051205220532054205520562057205820592060206120622063206420652066206720682069207020712072207320742075207620772078207920802081208220832084208520862087208820892090209120922093209420952096209720982099210021012102210321042105210621072108210921102111211221132114211521162117211821192120212121222123212421252126212721282129213021312132213321342135213621372138213921402141214221432144214521462147214821492150215121522153215421552156215721582159216021612162216321642165216621672168216921702171217221732174217521762177217821792180218121822183218421852186218721882189219021912192219321942195219621972198219922002201220222032204220522062207220822092210221122122213221422152216221722182219222022212222222322242225222622272228222922302231223222332234223522362237223822392240224122422243224422452246224722482249225022512252225322542255225622572258225922602261226222632264226522662267226822692270227122722273227422752276227722782279228022812282228322842285228622872288228922902291229222932294229522962297229822992300230123022303230423052306230723082309231023112312231323142315231623172318231923202321232223232324232523262327232823292330233123322333233423352336233723382339234023412342234323442345234623472348234923502351235223532354235523562357235823592360236123622363236423652366236723682369237023712372237323742375237623772378237923802381238223832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072408240924102411241224132414241524162417241824192420242124222423242424252426242724282429243024312432243324342435243624372438243924402441244224432444244524462447244824492450245124522453245424552456245724582459246024612462246324642465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249624972498249925002501250225032504250525062507250825092510251125122513251425152516251725182519252025212522252325242525252625272528252925302531253225332534253525362537253825392540254125422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561256225632564256525662567256825692570257125722573257425752576257725782579258025812582258325842585258625872588258925902591259225932594259525962597259825992600260126022603260426052606260726082609261026112612261326142615261626172618261926202621262226232624262526262627262826292630263126322633263426352636263726382639264026412642264326442645264626472648264926502651265226532654265526562657265826592660266126622663266426652666266726682669267026712672267326742675267626772678267926802681268226832684268526862687268826892690269126922693269426952696269726982699270027012702270327042705270627072708270927102711271227132714271527162717271827192720272127222723272427252726272727282729273027312732273327342735273627372738273927402741274227432744274527462747274827492750275127522753275427552756275727582759276027612762276327642765276627672768276927702771277227732774277527762777277827792780278127822783278427852786278727882789279027912792279327942795279627972798279928002801280228032804280528062807280828092810281128122813281428152816281728182819282028212822282328242825282628272828282928302831283228332834283528362837283828392840284128422843284428452846284728482849285028512852285328542855285628572858285928602861286228632864286528662867286828692870287128722873287428752876287728782879288028812882288328842885288628872888288928902891289228932894289528962897289828992900290129022903290429052906290729082909291029112912291329142915291629172918291929202921292229232924292529262927292829292930293129322933293429352936293729382939294029412942294329442945294629472948294929502951295229532954295529562957295829592960296129622963296429652966296729682969297029712972297329742975297629772978297929802981298229832984298529862987298829892990299129922993299429952996299729982999300030013002300330043005300630073008300930103011301230133014301530163017301830193020302130223023302430253026302730283029303030313032303330343035303630373038303930403041304230433044304530463047304830493050305130523053305430553056305730583059306030613062306330643065306630673068306930703071307230733074307530763077307830793080308130823083308430853086308730883089309030913092309330943095309630973098309931003101310231033104310531063107310831093110311131123113311431153116311731183119312031213122312331243125312631273128312931303131313231333134313531363137313831393140314131423143314431453146314731483149315031513152315331543155315631573158315931603161316231633164316531663167316831693170317131723173317431753176317731783179318031813182318331843185318631873188318931903191319231933194319531963197319831993200320132023203320432053206320732083209321032113212321332143215321632173218321932203221322232233224322532263227322832293230323132323233323432353236323732383239324032413242324332443245324632473248324932503251325232533254325532563257325832593260326132623263326432653266326732683269327032713272327332743275327632773278327932803281328232833284328532863287328832893290329132923293329432953296329732983299330033013302330333043305330633073308330933103311331233133314331533163317331833193320332133223323332433253326332733283329333033313332333333343335333633373338333933403341334233433344334533463347334833493350335133523353335433553356335733583359336033613362336333643365336633673368336933703371337233733374337533763377337833793380338133823383338433853386338733883389339033913392339333943395339633973398339934003401340234033404340534063407340834093410341134123413341434153416341734183419342034213422342334243425342634273428342934303431343234333434343534363437343834393440344134423443344434453446344734483449345034513452345334543455345634573458345934603461346234633464346534663467346834693470347134723473347434753476347734783479348034813482348334843485348634873488348934903491349234933494349534963497349834993500350135023503350435053506350735083509351035113512351335143515351635173518351935203521352235233524352535263527352835293530353135323533353435353536353735383539354035413542354335443545354635473548354935503551355235533554355535563557355835593560356135623563356435653566356735683569357035713572357335743575357635773578357935803581358235833584358535863587358835893590359135923593359435953596359735983599360036013602360336043605360636073608360936103611361236133614361536163617361836193620362136223623362436253626362736283629363036313632363336343635363636373638363936403641364236433644364536463647364836493650365136523653365436553656365736583659366036613662366336643665366636673668366936703671367236733674367536763677367836793680368136823683368436853686368736883689369036913692369336943695369636973698369937003701370237033704370537063707370837093710371137123713371437153716371737183719372037213722372337243725372637273728372937303731373237333734373537363737373837393740374137423743374437453746374737483749375037513752375337543755375637573758375937603761376237633764376537663767376837693770377137723773377437753776377737783779378037813782378337843785378637873788378937903791379237933794379537963797379837993800380138023803380438053806380738083809381038113812381338143815381638173818381938203821382238233824382538263827382838293830383138323833383438353836383738383839384038413842384338443845384638473848384938503851385238533854385538563857385838593860386138623863386438653866386738683869387038713872387338743875387638773878387938803881388238833884388538863887388838893890389138923893389438953896389738983899390039013902390339043905390639073908390939103911391239133914391539163917391839193920392139223923392439253926392739283929393039313932393339343935393639373938393939403941394239433944394539463947394839493950395139523953395439553956395739583959396039613962396339643965396639673968396939703971397239733974397539763977397839793980398139823983398439853986398739883989399039913992399339943995399639973998399940004001400240034004400540064007400840094010401140124013401440154016401740184019402040214022402340244025402640274028402940304031403240334034403540364037403840394040404140424043404440454046404740484049405040514052405340544055405640574058405940604061406240634064406540664067406840694070407140724073407440754076407740784079408040814082408340844085408640874088408940904091409240934094409540964097409840994100410141024103410441054106410741084109411041114112411341144115411641174118411941204121412241234124412541264127412841294130413141324133413441354136413741384139414041414142414341444145414641474148414941504151415241534154415541564157415841594160416141624163416441654166416741684169417041714172417341744175417641774178417941804181418241834184418541864187418841894190419141924193419441954196419741984199420042014202420342044205420642074208420942104211421242134214421542164217421842194220422142224223422442254226422742284229423042314232423342344235423642374238423942404241424242434244424542464247424842494250425142524253425442554256425742584259426042614262426342644265426642674268426942704271427242734274427542764277427842794280428142824283428442854286428742884289429042914292429342944295429642974298429943004301430243034304430543064307430843094310431143124313431443154316431743184319432043214322432343244325432643274328432943304331433243334334433543364337433843394340434143424343434443454346434743484349435043514352435343544355435643574358435943604361436243634364436543664367436843694370437143724373437443754376437743784379438043814382438343844385438643874388438943904391439243934394439543964397439843994400440144024403440444054406440744084409441044114412441344144415441644174418441944204421442244234424442544264427442844294430443144324433443444354436443744384439444044414442444344444445444644474448444944504451445244534454445544564457445844594460446144624463446444654466446744684469447044714472447344744475447644774478447944804481448244834484448544864487448844894490449144924493449444954496449744984499450045014502450345044505450645074508450945104511451245134514451545164517451845194520452145224523452445254526452745284529453045314532453345344535453645374538453945404541454245434544454545464547454845494550455145524553455445554556455745584559456045614562456345644565456645674568456945704571457245734574457545764577457845794580458145824583458445854586458745884589459045914592459345944595459645974598459946004601460246034604460546064607460846094610461146124613461446154616461746184619462046214622462346244625462646274628462946304631463246334634463546364637463846394640464146424643464446454646464746484649465046514652465346544655465646574658465946604661466246634664466546664667466846694670467146724673467446754676467746784679468046814682468346844685468646874688468946904691469246934694469546964697469846994700470147024703470447054706470747084709471047114712471347144715471647174718471947204721472247234724472547264727472847294730473147324733473447354736473747384739474047414742474347444745474647474748474947504751475247534754475547564757475847594760476147624763476447654766476747684769477047714772477347744775477647774778477947804781478247834784478547864787478847894790479147924793479447954796479747984799480048014802480348044805480648074808480948104811481248134814481548164817481848194820482148224823482448254826482748284829483048314832483348344835483648374838483948404841484248434844484548464847484848494850485148524853485448554856485748584859486048614862486348644865486648674868486948704871487248734874487548764877487848794880488148824883488448854886488748884889489048914892489348944895489648974898489949004901490249034904490549064907490849094910491149124913491449154916491749184919492049214922492349244925492649274928492949304931493249334934493549364937493849394940494149424943494449454946494749484949495049514952495349544955495649574958495949604961496249634964496549664967496849694970497149724973497449754976497749784979498049814982498349844985498649874988498949904991499249934994499549964997499849995000500150025003500450055006500750085009501050115012501350145015501650175018501950205021502250235024502550265027502850295030503150325033503450355036503750385039504050415042504350445045504650475048504950505051505250535054505550565057505850595060506150625063506450655066506750685069507050715072507350745075507650775078507950805081508250835084508550865087508850895090509150925093509450955096509750985099510051015102510351045105510651075108510951105111511251135114511551165117511851195120512151225123512451255126512751285129513051315132513351345135513651375138513951405141514251435144514551465147514851495150515151525153515451555156515751585159516051615162516351645165516651675168516951705171517251735174517551765177517851795180518151825183518451855186518751885189519051915192519351945195519651975198519952005201520252035204520552065207520852095210521152125213521452155216521752185219522052215222522352245225522652275228522952305231523252335234523552365237523852395240524152425243524452455246524752485249525052515252525352545255525652575258525952605261526252635264526552665267526852695270527152725273527452755276527752785279528052815282528352845285528652875288528952905291529252935294529552965297529852995300530153025303530453055306530753085309531053115312531353145315531653175318531953205321532253235324532553265327532853295330533153325333533453355336533753385339534053415342534353445345534653475348534953505351535253535354535553565357535853595360536153625363536453655366536753685369537053715372537353745375537653775378537953805381538253835384538553865387538853895390539153925393539453955396539753985399540054015402540354045405540654075408540954105411541254135414541554165417541854195420542154225423542454255426542754285429543054315432543354345435543654375438543954405441544254435444544554465447544854495450545154525453545454555456545754585459546054615462546354645465546654675468546954705471547254735474547554765477547854795480548154825483548454855486548754885489549054915492549354945495549654975498549955005501550255035504550555065507550855095510551155125513551455155516551755185519552055215522552355245525552655275528552955305531553255335534553555365537553855395540554155425543554455455546554755485549555055515552555355545555555655575558555955605561556255635564556555665567