• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Elon Musk wasn’t wrong about automating the Model 3 assembly line — he was just ahead of his time

In 2017, when Tesla announced incredibly ambitious Model 3 production targets of 5,000 Model 3s per week and the beginning of “production hell,” analysts were wary. But Elon Musk insisted he could pull it off, citing hyper-automation — a robotic assembly line — as his secret weapon to increase manufacturing speed and drive down costs. Fast-forward a year and a half and Tesla delivered 91,000 vehicles in Q4 2018. But the ramp-up didn’t come without massive issues and a move away from Musk’s original vision of a highly automated assembly line.

What happened?

Asked why the push toward automation didn’t pan out, Elon’s answer revolved around one major issue: robotic vision, or the software that controls what the assembly line robots can “see” and then do based on that computer vision. Unfortunately, the assembly line robots just couldn’t deal with unexpected orientations of objects like nuts and bolts, or complicated maneuvering between the car frame. Every such issue would cause the assembly line to stop. In the end, it was far easier to substitute humans for robots in many assembly situations.

Today, computer vision (the umbrella term for robotic vision) is everywhere and represents the next frontier of AI technologies and groundbreaking applications across a variety of industries. The advances being made right now by researchers and companies in the space are impressive and represent the missing pieces needed to make Elon Musk’s vision of an automated car assembly line a reality. At its core, these advances will give computers and robots the ability to reliably deal with the vast array of unexpected corner cases — those errant nuts and bolts — that occur in the real world.

A watershed moment in computer vision

Computer vision experienced a watershed moment in 2012 with the application of convolutional neural networks. Since then, it has really picked up steam. Before 2012, computer vision was largely about hand-crafted solutions — basically, algorithms had manually defined rule sets and could mathematically describe features of an image relatively effectively. These were hand-selected and then combined by a computer vision researcher in order to identify a specific object in an image, like a bicycle, a storefront or a face.

The rise of machine learning and advances in artificial neural nets changed all of that, allowing us to develop algorithms using massive amounts of training data that can automatically decipher and learn image features. The net effect of this was twofold: (1) solutions became much more robust (e.g. a face could still be identified as a face, even if it were oriented slightly differently, or in shadow), and (2) the creation of good solutions became reliant upon large amounts of high-quality training data (models learn features based on the training data, so it is critical that the training data is accurate, sufficient in quantity and represents the full diversity of situations the algorithm may later see).

Now in the lab: GANs, unsupervised learning and synthetic data

Next, new approaches like GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks), unsupervised learning and synthetic ground truth offer the potential to substantially reduce both the amount of training data required to develop high-quality computer vision models, as well as the time and effort required to collect the data. With these approaches, networks can actually bootstrap their own learning and identify corner cases and outliers with higher fidelity, far faster. Humans can then evaluate the corner cases to refine solutions and get to a high-quality model much more quickly.

These new approaches are rapidly expanding the envelope of computer vision in terms of applications, robustness and reliability. Not only do they hold the promise to solve Mr. Musk’s manufacturing challenges, but they will also dramatically extend the boundaries in myriad critical applications, some of which are highlighted below:

  • Manufacturing Automation: Robots will increasingly have the capability to deal with objects at randomized orientations, like a car seat that is 20 degrees off-center or a screw that is an inch too far to the left. Even further, robots will be able to reliably identify soft, flexible, transparent objects (think about, for example, the plastic bag of socks you ordered on Amazon last week). New robotics providers like Berkshire Grey are at the cutting edge of this.

  • Facial Detection: Previously, facial detection was not robust in corner cases like side angles, partial shading or occlusion, or babies’ faces. Now, researchers are finding that computer vision can work to identify rare genetic disorders from a photo of a face, with 90 percent accuracy. Certain applications are being put in the hands of consumers, which is only possible because algorithms have become increasingly robust to diverse lighting conditions and other situations that arise as a result of less control over image capture.

  • Medical Imaging: Advances are now allowing for the automation of MRI evaluation, skin cancer detection, and a number of other important use cases.

  • Driver Assistance and Automation: Self-driving systems were failing when it was foggy, because they were unable to differentiate between heavy fog and a rock. Now, unsupervised learning and the ability to create synthetic data (led by the likes of Nvidia) are starting to be used to train the system on corner cases that even billions of recorded driving miles cannot uncover.

  • Agriculture: Companies like Blue River Technology (acquired by John Deere) are now reliably able to differentiate between weeds and crops, and selectively spray herbicide automatically, enabling a dramatic reduction in the quantity of toxic chemicals in use by commercial agriculture.

  • Real Estate and Property Information: Using computer vision on top of geospatial imagery could allow companies to automatically identify when floods, wildfires or hurricane-force winds may pose a danger to specific properties — allowing homeowners to take action faster, before disaster strikes.

When looking at these advances, one thing quickly becomes clear: Elon Musk wasn’t wrong. It’s just that his vision (robotic and otherwise) was a year or two away from reality. AI, computer vision and robotics are all nearing a tipping point of accuracy, reliability and efficacy. For Tesla, it means that the next ramp up to “production hell” (likely for the model Y) will see a vastly different assembly line at its Fremont and Shanghai factories — one that will more successfully implement robotics paired with computer vision.


Source: TechCrunch

The Silicon Valley exodus continues

For a long time, it was the norm for founders to haul their hardware to the 3000 block of Sand Hill Road, where the venture capitalists of “Silicon Valley” would be awaiting their pitches. Today, many of the investors that touted the exclusivity of “The Valley” have moved north to San Francisco, where they have better access to top entrepreneurs.

Y Combinator, a Silicon Valley institution and to many the lifeblood of the startups and venture capital ecosystem, is the latest to pack up shop. YC, which invests $150,000 for 7 percent equity in a few hundred startups per year, is currently searching for a space in SF to operate its accelerator program, sources close to YC confirm to TechCrunch, because the majority of YC’s employees and its portfolio founders reside in the city.

Founded in 2005, YC’s roots are in Mountain View, California. In its first four years, YC offered programs in Cambridge, Massachusetts and Mountain View before opting in 2009 to focus exclusively on The Valley. In late 2013, as more and more of its partners and portfolio companies were establishing themselves in SF, YC opened a satellite office in the city in what would be the beginning of its journey northbound.

The small satellite office, used to support SF-based staff and provide portfolio companies resources and workspace, is located in Union Square. The fate of YC’s Mountain View office is unclear.

YC’s move north will be the latest in a series of small changes that, together, point to a new era for the accelerator. Approaching its 15th birthday, YC announced in September it was changing up the way it invests. No longer would it seed startups with $120,000 for 7 percent equity, it would give startups an additional 30,000 to cover the expenses of getting a business off the ground and it would admit a whole lot more companies.

YC began mentoring its largest cohort of companies to date in late 2018. The astonishing 200-plus group in its winter 2019 batch is more than 50 percent larger than the 132-team cohort that graduated in spring 2018. To accommodate the truly gigantic group at YC Demo Days later this month (March 18 and 19), YC has moved to a new venue, SF’s Pier 48. Historically, YC Demo Days were hosted at the Computer History Museum near its home in Mountain View.

YC has also ditched “Investor Day,” which is typically an opportunity for investors to schedule meetings with startups that just completed the accelerator program. YC writes that the decision came “after analyzing its effectiveness.” On top of that, rumors suggest YC is planning to put an end to Demo Days. Other accelerators, AngelPad for example, put a stop to the tradition last year after realizing demo day was more of a stress to startup founders than a resource. Sources close to YC, however, tell TechCrunch these rumors are categorically false.

YC isn’t the first accelerator to ditch its Silicon Valley digs. 500 Startups, a smaller yet still prolific accelerator, opened an SF satellite office the same year as YC, and in 2018, the nine-year-old program made the decision to permanently relocate to SF. Venture capital firms, too, have realized the opportunities are larger in SF than on Sand Hill Road.

The transition from the peninsula to the city began around 2012, when VC heavyweights like Uber and Twitter-backer Benchmark opened an office in SF’s mid-market neighborhood. Months later, 47-year-old Kleiner Perkins, an investor in Stripe and DoorDash, opened the doors to its new workplace in SF’s South Park neighborhood.

Around that same time a whole bunch of firms followed suit: Shasta Ventures, Norwest Venture Partners, Accel, GV, General Catalyst and NEA opened SF shops, to name a few. Many of these firms, Benchmark, Kleiner and Accel, for example, held onto their Silicon Valley locations. Firms like True Ventures and Peter Thiel’s Founders Fund planted stakes in SF years prior. Both firms have operated SF offices since 2005; True Ventures, for its part, has managed a Palo Alto office from the get-go, as well.

“When we first started, it was [expected] that it would be maybe 60-40 Peninsula to the city; it’s actually turned out to be 80-20 SF to The Valley,” True Ventures co-founder Phil Black told TechCrunch. “For us, it was important to be near our customer: the founder. It’s important for us to be in and around where founders are doing their things.”

The transition out of The Valley is ongoing. Other VC funds are still in the process of opening their first SF offices as more partners beg for shorter commutes. Khosla Ventures, for example, is currently searching for an SF headquarters.

Silicon Valley real estate will likely remain a hot — or warm, at least — commodity, however. Why? Because long-time investors have lives established in that part of the bay, where they’ve built homes in well-kept, affluent cities like Woodside, Atherton and Los Altos.

Still, Y Combinator’s move highlights an increasingly adopted mantra: Silicon Valley isn’t the goldmine it used to be. For the best deals and greatest access to entrepreneurs, SF takes the cake — for now, that is. But with rising rents and a changing attitude toward geographically diverse founders, how long SF will remain the destination for top talent is an entirely different question.


Source: TechCrunch

Save big on popular Logitech gaming mice with Walmart’s latest sale

Have you been thinking of upgrading your gaming setup? You can currently save on popular Logitech gaming mice at Walmart, including the G900 Chaos Spectrum, the G600 MMO Gaming Mouse, and more. 

The post Save big on popular Logitech gaming mice with Walmart’s latest sale appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

Microsoft rolls out new dark mode feature for its Windows 10 Mail app

Microsoft is rolling out a new display feature for its native Mail app in Windows 10. The new feature will allow users to enable dark mode for the Mail and Calendar app, if they prefer to view their emails with a black background.

The post Microsoft rolls out new dark mode feature for its Windows 10 Mail app appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb abruptly resigns from his post

That was unexpected, including by the FDA, apparently.

FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb resigned today, an administration official tells The Washington Post, adding that Gottlieb will relinquish the office in one month.

Unlike many people who leave the Trump administration, the resignation wasn’t sought or expected, reports the Post, which notes Gottlieb has recently hired senior staff and has been actively and aggressively diving into new initiatives.

In fact, while Gottlieb has since tweeted a statement from U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar, commending Gottlieb as an “exemplar public health leader,” he was earlier today retweeting a morning interview he’d given on air with CNBC in which he said the FDA was putting 15 national retailers on notice for allegedly selling tobacco products and e-cigs to minors.

He also today pointed his Twitter followers to newly released guidance by the FDA around new steps it’s taking to protect Americans from intentionally adulterated food products.

Following the Post report, Gottlieb issued a statement saying: “I’m immensely grateful for the opportunity to help lead this wonderful agency, for the support of my colleagues, for the public health goals we advanced together, and the strong support” of Donald Trump and Health Secretary Azar. “This has been a wonderful journey and parting is very hard.”

Trump subsequently tweeted that Gottlieb had “done an absolutely terrific job” as commissioner, adding, “He and his talents will be greatly missed!”

According to the official who spoke with the Post, Gottlieb, 46, has tired of commuting to Washington from his home in Westport, Conn., and wants to spend more time with his family, including his wife and three young daughters.

Still, the timing seems odd, particularly given Gottlieb’s very public, and unfinished, fight against vaping, which has become one of the hallmarks of his time as FDA Commissioner. Indeed, beginning last spring, Gottlieb began ringing the alarm bells on e-cigarettes and their fast spread among underage users after earlier delaying regulations that could have removed many of their products from the market.

At a public hearing in January, Gottlieb warned that levels of e-cig use among young people is reaching new heights, with vaping rates nearly doubling among high school students between 2017 and 2018.

Tobacco stocks have already risen on the news. One suspects that execs at the privately held company Juul — which has been a specific target of Gottlieb given its popularity with young users and that in December sold a 35 percent stake in its business to tobacco giant Altria Group — are also breathing a sigh of relief at news of his resignation.

Gottlieb was nominated by Donald Trump to serve in his current post almost exactly two years ago, though he’d worked as the FDA’s Deputy Commissioner for Medical and Scientific Affairs from 2005 to 2007. In between, Gottlieb, a trained physician, was a venture capitalist focused on healthcare investing with the firm New Enterprise Associates, which happens to be closing its biggest fund ever right now.

Previous FDA commissioners, each of whom has been appointed by the U.S. president with the consent of the Senate, have served varying lengths of time.

Gottlieb’s immediate predecessor, cardiologist Robert Califf, served the Obama administration for less than a year, after taking office in February 2016. He left after Trump was elected. Califf’s predecessor, physician Margaret Hamburg, was the commissioner from May 2009 through April 2015.


Source: TechCrunch

Apple may have quietly fixed flexgate issue with the 2018 MacBook Pro

Some MacBook owners had been complaining of an issue where thin cabling on the insides of laptop would give out and eventually cause a distortion effect the display. Apple addressed this with longer cables inside the MacBook Pro 2018.

The post Apple may have quietly fixed flexgate issue with the 2018 MacBook Pro appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

Bitcoin mining profits are on the rise. But don’t buy your own hardware just yet

Bitcoin miners can breathe a sigh of relief. While profits aren’t far from their lowest in the past year and a half, they appear to be on the rise again. That may be thanks to the introduction of newer, more efficient mining hardware.

The post Bitcoin mining profits are on the rise. But don’t buy your own hardware just yet appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

FBI head Christopher Wray: We can't let criminals hide behind encryption – CNET

Speaking at the RSA Conference, Wray acknowledges the topic is “provocative.”
Source: CNET

Kobalt, the music services company, is raising a big round that could exceed $100 million, says new report

Kobalt, a 19-year-old, London-based music services company that operates as both a music publisher and a service-based music company — among other things, it helps artists collect the royalties owed them — is reportedly raising a new round of funding that could surpass $100 million.

Music Business Worldwide (MBW) reported on the round yesterday, with Kobalt founder and CEO Willard Ahdritz confirming that the news is directionally correct without divulging precisely how much capital Kobalt is closing on currently.

The new funding comes about one year after Kobalt closed on its most recent funding, which valued the company at roughly $800 million, as TC had reported at the time.

A large part of Kobalt’s appeal to investors, as well as the artists, publishers and labels that are among its customers, is the content management system it has created and that makes it far easier and more transparent to capture the millions of incremental plays happening across streaming platforms like Apple Music, Spotify, and Soundcloud — then to collect money where it is due.

The company is made up of numerous parts, however, including Kobalt Music Publishing; Kobalt Neighbouring Rights; a recorded music division called AWAL (Artists Without a Label) into which Kobalt sunk $150 million last year to expand the business; and a collection agency that Kobalt acquired in 2015 AMRA. That’s short form for what was previously called the American Mechanical Rights Agency.

Kobalt also oversees Kobalt Capital, an acquisitive fund managed by KMG.

Kobalt’s investors to date have included GV;  Section 32, whose founder, Bill Maris, was previously the CEO of GV; Hearst Entertainment; Balderton Capital; and MSD Capital, a private investment firm that exclusively manages the capital of Michael Dell and his family.

According to MBW, Kobalt is currently talking with investment banks to pull together its mega round. Though Ahdritz would not state the express amount that Kobalt is targeting, he told the outlet that the fresh capital will be used to grow Kobalt’s presence in each of its verticals.

He added that its record vision, AWL, is particularly eager to challenge traditional and, as he sees it, outdated, record labels that tend to benefit a limited number of artists at the expense of so many others.

AWAL, as described last year by the Financial Times, offers musicians marketing and promotional services but lets them keep the copyright to their material, and has already drawn both new and established artists, including Nick Cave and De La Soul. Though they maintain ownership of their royalties, they share revenue with Kobalt in return for its services.


Source: TechCrunch

A discless Xbox One S 'all-digital' version is said to be available for preorders in April – CNET

Microsoft and Sony have considered building an all-digital Xbox and PlayStation for years. Now it might be happening.
Source: CNET

1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162636465666768697071727374757677787980818283848586878889909192939495969798991001011021031041051061071081091101111121131141151161171181191201211221231241251261271281291301311321331341351361371381391401411421431441451461471481491501511521531541551561571581591601611621631641651661671681691701711721731741751761771781791801811821831841851861871881891901911921931941951961971981992002012022032042052062072082092102112122132142152162172182192202212222232242252262272282292302312322332342352362372382392402412422432442452462472482492502512522532542552562572582592602612622632642652662672682692702712722732742752762772782792802812822832842852862872882892902912922932942952962972982993003013023033043053063073083093103113123133143153163173183193203213223233243253263273283293303313323333343353363373383393403413423433443453463473483493503513523533543553563573583593603613623633643653663673683693703713723733743753763773783793803813823833843853863873883893903913923933943953963973983994004014024034044054064074084094104114124134144154164174184194204214224234244254264274284294304314324334344354364374384394404414424434444454464474484494504514524534544554564574584594604614624634644654664674684694704714724734744754764774784794804814824834844854864874884894904914924934944954964974984995005015025035045055065075085095105115125135145155165175185195205215225235245255265275285295305315325335345355365375385395405415425435445455465475485495505515525535545555565575585595605615625635645655665675685695705715725735745755765775785795805815825835845855865875885895905915925935945955965975985996006016026036046056066076086096106116126136146156166176186196206216226236246256266276286296306316326336346356366376386396406416426436446456466476486496506516526536546556566576586596606616626636646656666676686696706716726736746756766776786796806816826836846856866876886896906916926936946956966976986997007017027037047057067077087097107117127137147157167177187197207217227237247257267277287297307317327337347357367377387397407417427437447457467477487497507517527537547557567577587597607617627637647657667677687697707717727737747757767777787797807817827837847857867877887897907917927937947957967977987998008018028038048058068078088098108118128138148158168178188198208218228238248258268278288298308318328338348358368378388398408418428438448458468478488498508518528538548558568578588598608618628638648658668678688698708718728738748758768778788798808818828838848858868878888898908918928938948958968978988999009019029039049059069079089099109119129139149159169179189199209219229239249259269279289299309319329339349359369379389399409419429439449459469479489499509519529539549559569579589599609619629639649659669679689699709719729739749759769779789799809819829839849859869879889899909919929939949959969979989991000100110021003100410051006100710081009101010111012101310141015101610171018101910201021102210231024102510261027102810291030103110321033103410351036103710381039104010411042104310441045104610471048104910501051105210531054105510561057105810591060106110621063106410651066106710681069107010711072107310741075107610771078107910801081108210831084108510861087108810891090109110921093109410951096109710981099110011011102110311041105110611071108110911101111111211131114111511161117111811191120112111221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115411551156115711581159116011611162116311641165116611671168116911701171117211731174117511761177117811791180118111821183118411851186118711881189119011911192119311941195119611971198119912001201120212031204120512061207120812091210121112121213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451246124712481249125012511252125312541255125612571258125912601261126212631264126512661267126812691270127112721273127412751276127712781279128012811282128312841285128612871288128912901291129212931294129512961297129812991300130113021303130413051306130713081309131013111312131313141315131613171318131913201321132213231324132513261327132813291330133113321333133413351336133713381339134013411342134313441345134613471348134913501351135213531354135513561357135813591360136113621363136413651366136713681369137013711372137313741375137613771378137913801381138213831384138513861387138813891390139113921393139413951396139713981399140014011402140314041405140614071408140914101411141214131414141514161417141814191420142114221423142414251426142714281429143014311432143314341435143614371438143914401441144214431444144514461447144814491450145114521453145414551456145714581459146014611462146314641465146614671468146914701471147214731474147514761477147814791480148114821483148414851486148714881489149014911492149314941495149614971498149915001501150215031504150515061507150815091510151115121513151415151516151715181519152015211522152315241525152615271528152915301531153215331534153515361537153815391540154115421543154415451546154715481549155015511552155315541555155615571558155915601561156215631564156515661567156815691570157115721573157415751576157715781579158015811582158315841585158615871588158915901591159215931594159515961597159815991600160116021603160416051606160716081609161016111612161316141615161616171618161916201621162216231624162516261627162816291630163116321633163416351636163716381639164016411642164316441645164616471648164916501651165216531654165516561657165816591660166116621663166416651666166716681669167016711672167316741675167616771678167916801681168216831684168516861687168816891690169116921693169416951696169716981699170017011702170317041705170617071708170917101711171217131714171517161717171817191720172117221723172417251726172717281729173017311732173317341735173617371738173917401741174217431744174517461747174817491750175117521753175417551756175717581759176017611762176317641765176617671768176917701771177217731774177517761777177817791780178117821783178417851786178717881789179017911792179317941795179617971798179918001801180218031804180518061807180818091810181118121813181418151816181718181819182018211822182318241825182618271828182918301831183218331834183518361837183818391840184118421843184418451846184718481849185018511852185318541855185618571858185918601861186218631864186518661867186818691870187118721873187418751876187718781879188018811882188318841885188618871888188918901891189218931894189518961897189818991900190119021903190419051906190719081909191019111912191319141915191619171918191919201921192219231924192519261927192819291930193119321933193419351936193719381939194019411942194319441945194619471948194919501951195219531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023202420252026202720282029203020312032203320342035203620372038203920402041204220432044204520462047204820492050205120522053205420552056205720582059206020612062206320642065206620672068206920702071207220732074207520762077207820792080208120822083208420852086208720882089209020912092209320942095209620972098209921002101210221032104210521062107210821092110211121122113211421152116211721182119212021212122212321242125212621272128212921302131213221332134213521362137213821392140214121422143214421452146214721482149215021512152215321542155215621572158215921602161216221632164216521662167216821692170217121722173217421752176217721782179218021812182218321842185218621872188218921902191219221932194219521962197219821992200220122022203220422052206220722082209221022112212221322142215221622172218221922202221222222232224222522262227222822292230223122322233223422352236223722382239224022412242224322442245224622472248224922502251225222532254225522562257225822592260226122622263226422652266226722682269227022712272227322742275227622772278227922802281228222832284228522862287228822892290229122922293229422952296229722982299230023012302230323042305230623072308230923102311231223132314231523162317231823192320232123222323232423252326232723282329233023312332233323342335233623372338233923402341234223432344234523462347234823492350235123522353235423552356235723582359236023612362236323642365236623672368236923702371237223732374237523762377237823792380238123822383238423852386238723882389239023912392239323942395239623972398239924002401240224032404240524062407240824092410241124122413241424152416241724182419242024212422242324242425242624272428242924302431243224332434243524362437243824392440244124422443244424452446244724482449245024512452245324542455245624572458245924602461246224632464246524662467246824692470247124722473247424752476247724782479248024812482248324842485248624872488248924902491249224932494249524962497249824992500250125022503250425052506250725082509251025112512251325142515251625172518251925202521252225232524252525262527252825292530253125322533253425352536253725382539254025412542254325442545254625472548254925502551255225532554255525562557255825592560256125622563256425652566256725682569257025712572257325742575257625772578257925802581258225832584258525862587258825892590259125922593259425952596259725982599260026012602260326042605260626072608260926102611261226132614261526162617261826192620262126222623262426252626262726282629263026312632263326342635263626372638263926402641264226432644264526462647264826492650265126522653265426552656265726582659266026612662266326642665266626672668266926702671267226732674267526762677267826792680268126822683268426852686268726882689269026912692269326942695269626972698269927002701270227032704270527062707270827092710271127122713271427152716271727182719272027212722272327242725272627272728272927302731273227332734273527362737273827392740274127422743274427452746274727482749275027512752275327542755275627572758275927602761276227632764276527662767276827692770277127722773277427752776277727782779278027812782278327842785278627872788278927902791279227932794279527962797279827992800280128022803280428052806280728082809281028112812281328142815281628172818281928202821282228232824282528262827282828292830283128322833283428352836283728382839284028412842284328442845284628472848284928502851285228532854285528562857285828592860286128622863286428652866286728682869287028712872287328742875287628772878287928802881288228832884288528862887288828892890289128922893289428952896289728982899290029012902290329042905290629072908290929102911291229132914291529162917291829192920292129222923292429252926292729282929293029312932293329342935293629372938293929402941294229432944294529462947294829492950295129522953295429552956295729582959296029612962296329642965296629672968296929702971297229732974297529762977297829792980298129822983298429852986298729882989299029912992299329942995299629972998299930003001300230033004300530063007300830093010301130123013301430153016301730183019302030213022302330243025302630273028302930303031303230333034303530363037303830393040304130423043304430453046304730483049305030513052305330543055305630573058305930603061306230633064306530663067306830693070307130723073307430753076307730783079308030813082308330843085308630873088308930903091309230933094309530963097309830993100310131023103310431053106310731083109311031113112311331143115311631173118311931203121312231233124312531263127312831293130313131323133313431353136313731383139314031413142314331443145314631473148314931503151315231533154315531563157315831593160316131623163316431653166316731683169317031713172317331743175317631773178317931803181318231833184318531863187318831893190319131923193319431953196319731983199320032013202320332043205320632073208320932103211321232133214321532163217321832193220322132223223322432253226322732283229323032313232323332343235323632373238323932403241324232433244324532463247324832493250325132523253325432553256325732583259326032613262326332643265326632673268326932703271327232733274327532763277327832793280328132823283328432853286328732883289329032913292329332943295329632973298329933003301330233033304330533063307330833093310331133123313331433153316331733183319332033213322332333243325332633273328332933303331333233333334333533363337333833393340334133423343334433453346334733483349335033513352335333543355335633573358335933603361336233633364336533663367336833693370337133723373337433753376337733783379338033813382338333843385338633873388338933903391339233933394339533963397339833993400340134023403340434053406340734083409341034113412341334143415341634173418341934203421342234233424342534263427342834293430343134323433343434353436343734383439344034413442344334443445344634473448344934503451345234533454345534563457345834593460346134623463346434653466346734683469347034713472347334743475347634773478347934803481348234833484348534863487348834893490349134923493349434953496349734983499350035013502350335043505350635073508350935103511351235133514351535163517351835193520352135223523352435253526352735283529353035313532353335343535353635373538353935403541354235433544354535463547354835493550355135523553355435553556355735583559356035613562356335643565356635673568356935703571357235733574357535763577357835793580358135823583358435853586358735883589359035913592359335943595359635973598359936003601360236033604360536063607360836093610361136123613361436153616361736183619362036213622362336243625362636273628362936303631363236333634363536363637363836393640364136423643364436453646364736483649365036513652365336543655365636573658365936603661366236633664366536663667366836693670367136723673367436753676367736783679368036813682368336843685368636873688368936903691369236933694369536963697369836993700370137023703370437053706370737083709371037113712371337143715371637173718371937203721372237233724372537263727372837293730373137323733373437353736373737383739374037413742374337443745374637473748374937503751375237533754375537563757375837593760376137623763376437653766376737683769377037713772377337743775377637773778377937803781378237833784378537863787378837893790379137923793379437953796379737983799380038013802380338043805380638073808380938103811381238133814381538163817381838193820382138223823382438253826382738283829383038313832383338343835383638373838383938403841384238433844384538463847384838493850385138523853385438553856385738583859386038613862386338643865386638673868386938703871387238733874387538763877387838793880388138823883388438853886388738883889389038913892389338943895389638973898389939003901390239033904390539063907390839093910391139123913391439153916391739183919392039213922392339243925392639273928392939303931393239333934393539363937393839393940394139423943394439453946394739483949395039513952395339543955395639573958395939603961396239633964396539663967396839693970397139723973397439753976397739783979398039813982398339843985398639873988398939903991399239933994399539963997399839994000400140024003400440054006400740084009401040114012401340144015401640174018401940204021402240234024402540264027402840294030403140324033403440354036403740384039404040414042404340444045404640474048404940504051405240534054405540564057405840594060406140624063406440654066406740684069407040714072407340744075407640774078407940804081408240834084408540864087408840894090409140924093409440954096409740984099410041014102410341044105410641074108410941104111411241134114411541164117411841194120412141224123412441254126412741284129413041314132413341344135413641374138413941404141414241434144414541464147414841494150415141524153415441554156415741584159416041614162416341644165416641674168416941704171417241734174417541764177417841794180418141824183418441854186418741884189419041914192419341944195419641974198419942004201420242034204420542064207420842094210421142124213421442154216421742184219422042214222422342244225422642274228422942304231423242334234423542364237423842394240424142424243424442454246424742484249425042514252425342544255425642574258425942604261426242634264426542664267426842694270427142724273427442754276427742784279428042814282428342844285428642874288428942904291429242934294429542964297429842994300430143024303430443054306430743084309431043114312431343144315431643174318431943204321432243234324432543264327432843294330433143324333433443354336433743384339434043414342434343444345434643474348434943504351435243534354435543564357435843594360436143624363436443654366436743684369437043714372437343744375437643774378437943804381438243834384438543864387438843894390439143924393439443954396439743984399440044014402440344044405440644074408440944104411441244134414441544164417441844194420442144224423442444254426442744284429443044314432443344344435443644374438443944404441444244434444444544464447444844494450445144524453445444554456445744584459446044614462446344644465446644674468446944704471447244734474447544764477447844794480448144824483448444854486448744884489449044914492449344944495449644974498449945004501450245034504450545064507450845094510451145124513451445154516451745184519452045214522452345244525452645274528452945304531453245334534453545364537453845394540454145424543454445454546454745484549455045514552455345544555455645574558455945604561456245634564456545664567456845694570457145724573457445754576457745784579458045814582458345844585458645874588458945904591459245934594459545964597459845994600460146024603460446054606460746084609461046114612461346144615461646174618461946204621462246234624462546264627462846294630463146324633463446354636463746384639464046414642464346444645464646474648464946504651465246534654465546564657465846594660466146624663466446654666466746684669467046714672467346744675467646774678467946804681468246834684468546864687468846894690469146924693469446954696469746984699470047014702470347044705470647074708470947104711471247134714471547164717471847194720472147224723472447254726472747284729473047314732473347344735473647374738473947404741474247434744474547464747474847494750475147524753475447554756475747584759476047614762476347644765476647674768476947704771477247734774477547764777477847794780478147824783478447854786478747884789479047914792479347944795479647974798479948004801480248034804480548064807480848094810481148124813481448154816481748184819482048214822482348244825482648274828482948304831483248334834483548364837483848394840484148424843484448454846484748484849485048514852485348544855485648574858485948604861486248634864486548664867486848694870487148724873487448754876487748784879488048814882488348844885488648874888488948904891489248934894489548964897489848994900490149024903490449054906490749084909491049114912491349144915491649174918491949204921492249234924492549264927492849294930493149324933493449354936493749384939494049414942494349444945494649474948494949504951495249534954495549564957495849594960496149624963496449654966496749684969497049714972497349744975497649774978497949804981498249834984498549864987498849894990499149924993499449954996499749984999500050015002500350045005500650075008500950105011501250135014501550165017501850195020502150225023502450255026502750285029503050315032503350345035503650375038503950405041504250435044504550465047504850495050505150525053505450555056505750585059506050615062506350645065506650675068506950705071507250735074507550765077507850795080508150825083508450855086508750885089509050915092509350945095509650975098509951005101510251035104510551065107510851095110511151125113511451155116511751185119512051215122512351245125512651275128512951305131513251335134513551365137513851395140514151425143514451455146514751485149515051515152515351545155515651575158515951605161516251635164516551665167516851695170517151725173517451755176517751785179518051815182518351845185518651875188518951905191519251935194519551965197519851995200520152025203520452055206520752085209521052115212521352145215521652175218521952205221522252235224522552265227522852295230523152325233523452355236523752385239524052415242524352445245524652475248524952505251525252535254525552565257525852595260526152625263526452655266526752685269527052715272527352745275527652775278527952805281528252835284528552865287528852895290529152925293529452955296529752985299530053015302530353045305530653075308530953105311531253135314531553165317531853195320532153225323532453255326532753285329533053315332533353345335533653375338533953405341534253435344534553465347534853495350535153525353535453555356535753585359536053615362536353645365536653675368536953705371537253735374537553765377537853795380538153825383538453855386538753885389539053915392539353945395539653975398539954005401540254035404540554065407540854095410541154125413541454155416541754185419542054215422542354245425542654275428542954305431543254335434543554365437543854395440544154425443544454455446544754485449545054515452545354545455545654575458545954605461546254635464546554665467546854695470547154725473547454755476547754785479548054815482548354845485548654875488548954905491549254935494549554965497549854995500