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Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Uber loses another appeal against drivers’ rights in UK

Uber has lost another appeal against a landmark 2016 UK employment tribunal ruling that found a group of drivers to be workers, rather than self-employed, meaning they’re entitled to benefits such as holiday pay and the National Minimum Wage.

The court of appeal today upheld previous decisions classifying the drivers as workers.

Although the ruling was not unanimous and Uber has been granted permission to appeal direct to the Supreme Court.

Commenting on the ruling in a statement Uber said:

This decision was not unanimous and does not reflect the reasons why the vast majority of drivers choose to use the Uber app. We have been granted permission to appeal to the Supreme Court and will do so.

Almost all taxi and private hire drivers have been self-employed for decades, long before our app existed. Drivers who use the Uber app make more than the London Living Wage and want to keep the freedom to choose if, when and where they drive. If drivers were classified as workers they would inevitably lose some of the freedom and flexibility that comes with being their own boss.

The original tribunal dismissed Uber’s argument that its platform merely supplies drivers with “business opportunities” — calling it a “pure fiction which bears no relation to the real dealings and relationships between the parties”.

But Uber points out that one of the appeals court judges, Lord Justice Underhill, expressed the view that the relationship it argued for “is neither unrealistic nor artificial”, accepting it being “in accordance with a well-recognised model for relationships in the private hire car business”.

The company also points to a number of changes to its business since the 2016 ruling, such as offering insurance cover for drivers.

“Over the last two years we’ve made many changes to give drivers even more control over how they use the app, alongside more security through sickness, maternity and paternity protections. We’ll keep listening to drivers and introduce further improvements,” its statement adds.

On the other side, co-lead claimant James Farrar, a former Uber driver who is now chair of the Independent Workers Union of Great Britain (IWGB), welcomed the ruling — but also criticized Uber for “delaying inevitable changes to its business model”

In a statement Farrar said:

I am delighted today’s ruling brings us closer to the ending Uber’s abuse of precarious workers made possible by tactics of contract trickery, psychological manipulation and old-fashioned bullying. However, I am dismayed that implementation of worker status for drivers is further delayed while Uber seeks yet another appeal. This is nothing more than a cynical ploy to delay inevitable changes to its business model while it pursues a record breaking $120 billion stock market flotation. It’s time for Uber to come clean with all its stakeholders and abide by the decision of the courts.

Fellow co-lead claimant, and secretary of the IWGB’s United Private Hire Drivers branch, Yaseen Aslam, also expressed frustration at the protracted legal fight — writing:

I’m delighted with today’s ruling, but frustrated that the process has dragged on for over three years. It cannot be left to precarious workers like us to bring companies like Uber to account and despite the personal price we have had to pay, we are the lucky ones. We know of many that are under such hardship, that it would be unimaginable for them to take a multi-billion pound company to court. It is now time for the government and the Mayor of London to act and stop letting companies like Uber take them for a ride.

Uber lost its first appeal against the 2016 tribunal ruling a year ago but vowed to keep on appealing.

At the same time unions are keeping up the pressure on the ride-hailing giant, calling a drivers strike two months ago and urging Uber to immediately apply the tribunal judgement — and implement “employment conditions that respect worker rights for drivers, including the payment of at least the minimum wage and paid holidays”.

Uber has previously told policymakers that if it was required to pay such benefits to the circa 50,000 drivers operating on its platform in the UK it would cost its business “tens of millions” of pounds.

Commenting on today’s decision, Rachel Farr, a senior professional support lawyer in the employment, pensions & mobility group at Taylor Wessing, suggested the judgement could have ramifications for other gig economy platforms, bolstering those that argue such workers “deserve a better deal”.

Though she also emphasized the case-by-case nature of employment classification decisions.

“This decision will have an impact both across the gig economy and in more traditional sectors and will give encouragement to claimants in other cases which are awaiting a hearing or stayed pending the outcome,” she said in a statement. “But just because Uber lost, it doesn’t mean that others will: Each case will be considered on its specific facts, including the contractual terms between the parties and what actually happens in practice.”

Food delivery startup Deliveroo, for example, has so far prevailed in UK courts against union-backed attempts to gain collective bargaining rights by challenging its classification of couriers as independent contractors.

Last year a UK employment tribunal judged that Deliveroo riders could not be considered workers because they had a genuine right to find a substitute to do their job for them.

At the same time the government has been consulting on updating employment law to take account of tech-fuelled changes to working patterns. And earlier this week it set out a labor market reform package — billing it as a major upgrade to workplace rights.

Although unions dubbed the plan heavy on spin and weak on substance, reiterating accusations that gig economy giants are getting fat by exploiting workers.

Nor are unions the sole critics of pay and conditions in the gig economy. Reacting to the Uber decision today, Frank Field MP — who has conducted an inquiry into gig economy pay and conditions (and whose report on Deliveroo likened its asymmetrical model to 20th century dockyards) — dubbed it “another stunning victory for workers against the exploitation and poverty wages that stem from bogus self-employment in the gig economy”.

“The Government’s job now is to ensure justice is delivered for workers all year round, not just at Christmas,” he added.

This week the government said it’s committed to legislate to improve the clarity of the employment status tests — to “reflect the reality of the modern working relationships” — which could have major implications for platform giants like Uber.

Although at this stage it’s not clear what the reformed employment tests will look like, nor how its approach might end up redrawing the line for workers. So there’s much tbc there.

“The long-drawn history of the Uber case shows that the current law is not easy for businesses and those who work for them to understand. Clarifying such a complex area of law is easier said than done and it remains to be seen what this promise will actually mean,” noted TaylorWessing’s Farr.

“However, what is certain is that there is an evolving consciousness around the nature of work within an increasingly flexible and digitalised economy. The future of work will change and employers sticking to arguably outdated relationships with their employees are likely to be left behind.”

Congestion charge looming

In other news today that’s also likely to impact Uber’s business, London’s mayor and transport regulator, TfL, have announced they will lift the congestion charge exemption for private hire vehicles (PHVs), as part of a strategy to tackle pollution and congestion in the city.

From April 8 only zero emission-capable vehicles will be exempt from the charge in London.

PHVs that are not wheelchair accessible will also have their exemption removed. So even Uber drivers using Prius (or similar) electric hybrid vehicles will still have to pay the charge from early next year.

The change of policy, which follows a public consultation, is expected to reduce the number of PHVs circulating in London’s Congestion Charging Zone by up to 8,000 per day.

The mayor’s target is a 65% reduction in taxi emissions by 2025 with the stated aim of protecting the health of Londoners.

Air toxicity in the UK capital has been exceeding legal limits for years, coinciding with a big rise in the number of PHVs on London’s streets after Uber’s 2012 launch kicked off the ride-hailing craze.


Source: TechCrunch

SpaceX scraps Air Force mission two days in a row – CNET

A Falcon 9 rocket is going back to the shop so engineers can check out an error before launching a powerful new GPS satellite.
Source: CNET

2020 Mercedes-Benz EQC: A 230-mile range test along the California coast – Roadshow

We catch a ride down the California coast to experience the real-world range of Mercedes’ upcoming EQC electric SUV.
Source: CNET

Google's Game of the Year tests your search trend savvy – CNET

Fortnite, slime, Yanny v. Laurel– find out just how plugged in to search trends you were in 2018.
Source: CNET

With the E-tron, Audi Shows What an Electric SUV Can Be

The new battery-powered luxury ride is capable, comfy, and clever.
Source: Wired

Europe issues a deadline for US’ Privacy Shield compliance

The European Commission has finally given the U.S. a deadline related to the much criticized data transfer mechanism known as the EU-US Privacy Shield .

But it’s only asking for the U.S. to nominate a permanent ombudsperson — to handle any EU citizens’ complaints — by February 28, 2019.

If a permanent ombudsperson is not appointed by then the Commission says it will “consider taking appropriate measures, in accordance with the General Data Protection Regulation”.

So not an out-and-out threat to suspend the mechanism — which is what critics and MEPs have been calling for.

But still a fixed deadline at last.

“We now expect our American partners to nominate the Ombudsperson on a permanent basis, so we can make sure that our EU-US relations in data protection are fully trustworthy,” said Andrus Ansip, Commission VP for the Digital Single Market, in a statement.

“All elements of the Shield must be working at full speed, including the Ombudsperson,” added Věra Jourová, the commissioner for justice and consumers.

It’s the first sign the Commission is losing patience with its U.S. counterparts.

Although there’s no doubt the EC remains fully committed to the survival of the business-friendly mechanism which it spent years negotiating after the prior arrangement, Safe Harbor, was struck down by Europe’s top court following NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden’s disclosures of US government surveillance programs.

Its problem is it has to contend with Trump administration priorities — which naturally don’t align with privacy protection for non-US citizens.

While the EU-US Privacy Shield is over two years’ old at this point, president Trump has failed to nominate a permanent ombudsperson to a key oversight role.

The acting civil servant (Judith Garber, principal deputy assistant secretary for the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs) was also nominated as U.S. ambassador to Cyprus this summer, suggesting a hard limit to her already divided attention on EU citizens’ data privacy.

Despite this problematic wrinkle, the EU’s executive today professed itself otherwise satisfied that the mechanism is ensuring “an adequate level of protection for personal data”, announcing the conclusion of its second annual Privacy Shield review.

The data transfer mechanism is now used by more than 4,000 companies to simplify flows of EU citizens’ personal data to the US.

And the Commission clearly wants to avoid a repeat of the scramble that kicked off when, three years ago, Safe Harbor was struck down and businesses had to find alternative legal means for authorizing essential data flows.

But at the same time Privacy Shield has been under growing pressure. This summer the EU parliament called for the mechanism to be suspended until the U.S. comes into compliance.

The parliament’s Libe committee also called for better monitoring of data transfers was clearly required in light of the Cambridge Analytica Facebook data misuse scandal. (Both companies having been signed up to Privacy Shield.)

The mechanism has also been looped into a separate legal challenge to another data transfer tool after the Irish High Court referred a series of questions to the European Court of Justice — setting the stage for another high stakes legal drama if fundamental European privacy rights are again deemed incompatible with U.S. national security practices.

A decision on that referral remains for the future. But in the meanwhile the Commission looks to be doing everything it can to claim it’s ‘business as usual’ for EU-US data flows.

In a press release today, it lauds steps taken by the U.S. authorities to implement recommendations it made in last year’s Privacy Shield review — saying they have “improved the functioning of the framework”.

Albeit, the detail of these slated ‘improvements’ shows how very low its starting bar was set — with the Commission listing, for e.g.:

  • the strengthening by the Department of Commerce of the certification process and of its proactive oversight over the framework — including setting up mechanisms such as a system of spot checks (it says that 100 companies have been checked; and 21 had “issues that have now been solved” — suggesting a fifth of claimed compliance was, er, not actually compliance)
  • additional “compliance review procedures” such as analysis of Privacy Shield participants’ websites “to ensure that links to privacy policies are correct”; so previously we must assume no one in the U.S. was bothering to check
  • the Department of Commerce put in place a system to identify false claims which the Commission now claims “prevents companies from claiming their compliance with the Privacy Shield, when they have not been certified”; so again, prior to this system being set up certifications weren’t necessary worth the pixels they were painted in

The Commission also claims the Federal Trade Commission has shown “a more proactive approach” to enforcement by monitoring the principles of the Privacy Shield — noting that, for example, it has issued subpoenas to request information from participating companies.

Another change it commends — related to the sticky issue of access to personal data by U.S. public authorities for national security purposes (which is what did for Safe Harbor) — is the appointment of new members of the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) — to restore the Board’s quorum.

The denuded PCLOB has been a long running bone of contention for Privacy Shield critics.

“The Board’s report on the implementation of Presidential Policy-Directive No. 28 (PPD-28, which provides for privacy protections for non-Americans) has been made publicly available,” the Commission writes, referring to a key Obama era directive that it has previously said the Shield depends upon. “It confirms that these privacy protections for non-Americans are implemented across the U.S. intelligence community.”

It says it also took into account relevant developments in the U.S. legal system in the area of privacy during the review, noting that: “The Department of Commerce launched a consultation on a federal approach to data privacy to which the Commission contributed and the US Federal Trade Commission is reflecting on its current powers in this area.”

“In the context of the Facebook/Cambridge Analytica scandal, the Commission noted the Federal Trade Commission’s confirmation that its investigation of this case is ongoing,” it adds, kicking the can down the road on that particular data scandal.

Meanwhile, as you’d expect, business groups have welcomed another green light for data to keep being passed.

In a statement responding to the conclusion of the review, the Computer & Communications Industry Association said: “We commend the European Commission for its thorough review. Privacy Shield is a robust framework, with strong data protections, that allows for the daily transfers of commercial data between the world’s two biggest trading partners.”


Source: TechCrunch

You’ll soon be able to run Windows and Chrome OS on your Chromebook

Chromebooks may soon have an option for what operating system they run thanks to Google’s “dual boot” feature. New Chromium repository commits suggest its development could be further along than we thought.

The post You’ll soon be able to run Windows and Chrome OS on your Chromebook appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

57 cars pick up IIHS accolades in 2019, despite stricter requirements – Roadshow

The passenger-side small overlap test takes center stage for 2019.
Source: CNET

Google says mobile-first indexing is now used for over half the web pages in its search results

Google announced today it’s now using mobile-first indexing for over half the web pages shown in its search results globally – a significant milestone in Google’s move to favor mobile sites over desktop sites in its search results.

The plans for the project have been in the works for years.

The company had first detailed its efforts around mobile-first indexing back in 2016, where it explained the impacts to how its search index operates. It said it would shift over to using the mobile version of a website’s content to index its pages, as well as to understand its structured data and show snippets from the site in Google’s search results.

Its reasoning behind the change is simple: most people today search Google from a mobile device, not a desktop computer. But Google’s ranking systems for the web were originally built for the desktop era. They still typically look at the desktop version of the page’s content to determine its relevance to the user.

This, obviously, causes problems when the desktop site and the mobile site are not in sync.

Before responsive web design became more commonplace, many site owners built a separate, simpler and sometimes less informative version of their site for their mobile web visitors. These users may have been guided to the site because of Google Search. But once there, they couldn’t find what they were looking for because it was only available on the desktop version of the web page.

In December 2017, Google said it had begun to transition a small handful of sites to mobile-first indexing.

Earlier this year, Google announced it had begun to officially roll out its “mobile-first” indexing of the web, following a year and a half of testing and experimentation. At the time, it said it would first move over the sites already following the best practices for mobile-first indexing. It also noted it would favor the site’s own mobile version of its webpage over Google’s fast-loading AMP pages.

Sites who are shifted are notified through a message in Search Console and then see increased visits from the smartphone version of Googlebot, which crawls the mobile version of their site. Site owners can also check their server logs, where they can track the increased requests from Googlebot Smartphone.

Google additionally offers a URL inspection tool, which site owners can use to check how a URL from their site – like the homepage – was last crawled and indexed.

Google today notes that sites that don’t use responsive web design are seeing two common problems when Google tries to move them over to mobile-first indexing.

Some don’t use structured data on their mobile sites, even though they use it on the desktop. This is important because it helps Google to understand the website’s content and allows it to highlight pages’ content in its search results, through its “fancier” features like rich results, Knowledge Graph results, enhanced search results, carousels and more – basically any time you see more engaging search results that offer more than just a list of blue links.

The company also said that some mobile sites were missing alt-text for images, which makes it harder for Google to understand the images’ content.

At the time of the initial wave of sites being shifted over, Google had said that the mobile-friendly index wouldn’t directly impact how content is ranked, but it did say that a site’s mobile-friendly content will help it “perform better” in mobile search results. Mobile-friendliness has also long been one of many factors in determining how a site is ranked, but it’s not the only one.

Google didn’t say what it will do to sites that are never properly updated for the mobile web, but it seems that – at some point – their ranking could be impacted.

 


Source: TechCrunch

Uber can resume self-driving car tests in Pennsylvania – Roadshow

The state’s approval is a moot point for now. Uber’s autonomous vehicle program hasn’t started back up following a pedestrian’s death in Arizona this year.
Source: CNET

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