• +598 29008192
  • info@servinfo.com.uy

Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

MySpace reportedly loses 50 million songs uploaded over 12 years – CNET

No more partying like it’s 2003-2015 on the social network that was once the biggest site in the US.
Source: CNET

Bentley Continental GT W12 delayed, V8 pulled ahead – Roadshow

With its W12 engine waylaid for further calibration work, Bentley will launch the new Conti GT with V8s first in the US.
Source: CNET

MoviePass might bring the $10 unlimited movies plan back with new twists – CNET

New MoviePass subscribers reportedly would pay for a year in advance using their bank account.
Source: CNET

HP’s Omen Mindframe headset keeps your ears chill, but might leave you lukewarm

The Omen Mindframe headset uses HP’s FrostCap technology to keep ears cool during long gaming sections. While it delivers on keeping ears cool, it forgets some of the essentials of a quality gaming headset.

The post HP’s Omen Mindframe headset keeps your ears chill, but might leave you lukewarm appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

Daily Crunch: Apple updates the iPad Mini

The Daily Crunch is TechCrunch’s roundup of our biggest and most important stories. If you’d like to get this delivered to your inbox every day at around 9am Pacific, you can subscribe here.

1. Apple launches new iPad Air and iPad mini

The company is (finally) updating the iPad mini and adding a new iPad Air. This model sits between the entry-level 9.7-inch iPad and the 11-inch iPad Pro in the lineup.

All new models now support the first-generation Apple Pencil — but not the new Apple Pencil that supports magnetic charging and pairing.

2. Myspace may have lost more than a decade’s worth of user music

The once-dominant social network posted a note on its site reading, “As a result of a server migration project, any photos, videos, and audio files you uploaded more than three years ago may no longer be available on or from Myspace. We apologize for the inconvenience.”

3. Facebook failed to block 20 percent of uploaded New Zealand shooter videos

Facebook said it removed 1.5 million videos from its site within the first 24 hours after a shooter live-streamed his attack on two New Zealand mosques. In a series of tweets, Facebook’s Mia Garlick said a total of 1.2 million videos were blocked at the point of upload — but she did not say why the other 300,000 videos were not caught at upload.

4. Lyft’s imminent IPO could value the company at $23B

Ride-hailing firm Lyft will make its Nasdaq debut as early as next week at a valuation of up to $23 billion, The Wall Street Journal reports.

5. Moby’s new album is exclusive to the Calm meditation app

Album exclusives are nothing new in the age of Tidal, of course. But Moby’s latest is taking a circuitous route to the world’s mobile devices.

6. Slack hands over control of encryption keys to regulated customers

Slack announced today that it is launching Enterprise Key Management for Slack, a new tool that enables customers to control their encryption keys in the enterprise version of the communications app.

7. This week’s TechCrunch podcasts

The latest episode of Equity looks at Uber’s IPO plans, while the team at Mixtape talks to Angelica Ross of the FX show “Pose.”


Source: TechCrunch

EU gov’t and public health sites lousy with adtech, study finds

A study of tracking cookies running on government and public sector health websites in the European Union has found commercial adtech to be operating pervasively even in what should be core not-for-profit corners of the Internet.

The researchers used searches including queries related to HIV, mental health, pregnancy, alcoholism and cancer to examine how frequently European Internet users are tracked when accessing national health service webpages to look for publicly funded information about sensitive concerns.

The study also found that most EU government websites have commercial trackers embedded on them, with 89 per cent of official government websites found to contain third party ad tracking technology.

The research was carried out by Cookiebot using its own cookie scanning technology to examine trackers on public sector websites, scanning 184,683 pages on all 28 EU main government websites.

Only the Spanish, German and the Dutch websites were found not to contain any commercial trackers.

The highest number of tracking companies were present on the websites of the French (52), Latvian (27), Belgian (19) and Greek (18) governments.

The researchers also ran a sub-set of 15 health-related queries across six EU countries (UK, Ireland, Spain, France, Italy and Germany) to identify relevant landing pages hosted on the websites of the corresponding national health service — going on to count and identify tracking domains operating on the landing pages.

Overall, they found a majority (52 per cent) of landing pages on the national health services of the six EU countries contained third party trackers.

Broken down by market, the Irish health service ranked worst — with 73 per cent of landing pages containing trackers.

While the UK, Spain, France and Italy had trackers on 60 per cent, 53 per cent, 47 per cent and 47 per cent of landing pages, respectively.

Germany ranked lowest of the six, yet they still found a third of the health service landing pages contained trackers.

Searches on publicly funded health service sites being compromised by the presence of adtech suggests highly sensitive inferences could be being made about web users by the commercial companies behind the trackers.

Cookiebot found a very long list of companies involved — flagging for example how 63 companies were monitoring a single German webpage about maternity leave; and 21 different companies were monitoring a single French webpage about abortion.

Vulnerable citizens who seek official health advice are shown to be suffering sensitive personal data leakage,” it writes in the report. “Their behaviour on these sites can be used to infer sensitive facts about their health condition and life situation. This data will be processed and often resold by the ad tech industry, and is likely to be used to target ads, and potentially affect economic outcomes, such as insurance risk scores.”

“These citizens have no clear way to prevent this leakage, understand where their data is sent, or to correct or delete the data,” it warns. 

It’s worth noting that Cookiebot and its parent company Cybot’s core business is related to selling EU data protection compliance services. So it’s not without its own commercial interests here. Though there’s no doubting the underlying adtech sprawl the report flags.

Where there’s some fuzziness is around exactly what these trackers are doing, as some could be used for benign site functions like website analytics.

Albeit, if/when the owner of the freebie analytics services in question is also adtech giant Google that still may not feel reassuring, from a privacy point of view.

100+ firms tracking EU public sector site users

Across both government and health service websites, Cookiebot says it identified a total of 112 companies using trackers that send data to a total of 131 third party tracking domains.

It also found 10 companies which actively masked their identity — with no website hosted at their tracking domains, and domain ownership (WHOIS) records hidden by domain privacy services, meaning they could not be identified. That’s obviously of concern. 

Here’s the table of identified tracking companies — which, disclosure alert, includes AOL and Yahoo which are owned by TechCrunch’s parent company, Verizon.

Adtech giants Google and Facebook are also among adtech companies tracking users across government and health service websites, along with a few other well known tech names — such as Oracle, Microsoft and Twitter.

Cookiebot’s study names Google “the kingpin of tracking” — finding the company performed more than twice as much tracking as any other, seemingly as a result of Google owning several of the most dominant ad tracking domains.

Google-owned YouTube.com, DoubleClick.net and Google.com were the top three tracking domains IDed by the study. 

“Through the combination of these domains, Google tracks website visits to 82% of the EU’s main government websites,” Cookiebot writes. “On each of the 22 main government websites on which YouTube videos have been installed, YouTube has automatically loaded a tracker from DoubleClick .net (Google’s primary ad serving domain). Using DoubleClick.net and Google.com, Google tracks visits to 43% of the scanned health service landing pages.”

 

Given its control of many of the Internet’s top platforms (Google Analytics, Maps, YouTube, etc.), it is no surprise that Google has greater success at gaining tracking access to more webpages than anyone else,” it continues. “It is of special concern that Google is capable of cross-referencing its trackers with its 1st party account details from popular consumer-oriented services such as Google Mail, Search, and Android apps (to name a few) to easily associate web activity with the identities of real people.”

Under European data protection law “subjective” information that’s associated with an individual — such as opinions or assessments — is absolutely considered personal data.

So tracker-fuelled inferences being made about site visitors are subject to EU data protection law — which has even more strict rules around the processing of sensitive categories of information like health data.

That in turn suggests that any adtech companies doing third-party-tracking of Internet users and linking sensitive health queries to individual identities would need explicit user consent to do so.

The presence of adtech trackers on sensitive health data pages certainly raises plenty of questions.

We asked Google for a response to the Cookiebot report, and a spokesperson sent us the following statement regarding sensitive category data specifically — in which it claims: “We do not permit publishers to use our technology to collect or build targeting lists based on users’ sensitive information, including health conditions like pregnancy or HIV.”

Google also claims it does not itself infer sensitive user interest categories.

Furthermore it said its policies for personalized ads prohibit its advertisers from collecting or using sensitive interest categories to target users. (Though saying you’re telling someone not to do something is not the same as that thing not being done. That would depend on the enforcement.)

Google’s spokesperson was also keen to point to its EU user consent policy — where it says it requires site owners that use its services to ensure they have correct disclosures and consents for personalised ads and cookies from European end users.

The company warns it may suspend or terminate a site’s use of its services if they have not obtained the right disclosures and consents. It adds there’s no exception for government sites.

On tags and disclosure generally, the Google spokesperson provided the following comment: “Our policies are clear: If website publishers choose to use Google web or advertising products, they must obtain consent for cookies associated with those products.”

Where Google Analytics cookies are concerned, Google said traffic data is only collected and processed per instructions it receives from site owners and publishers — further emphasizing that such data would not be used for ads or Google purposes without authorization from the website owner or publisher.

Albeit sloppy implementations of freebie Google tools by resource-strapped public sector site administrators might make such authorizations all too easy to unintentionally enable.

So, tl;dr — as Google tells it — the onus for privacy compliance is on the public sector websites themselves.

Though given the complex and opaque mesh of technology that’s grown up sheltering under the modern ‘adtech’ umbrella, opting out of this network’s clutches entirely may be rather easier said than done.

Cookiebot’s founder, Daniel Johannsen, makes a similar point to Google’s in the report intro, writing: “Although the governments presumably do not control or benefit from the documented data collection, they still allow the safety and privacy of their citizens to be compromised within the confines of their digital domains — in violation of the laws that they have themselves put in place.”

More than nine months into the GDPR [General Data Protection Regulation], a trillion-dollar industry is continuing to systematically monitor the online activity of EU citizens, often with the unintentional assistance of the very governments that should be regulating it,” he adds, calling for public sector bodies to “lead by example – at a minimum by shutting down any digital rights infringements that they are facilitating on their own websites”.

“The fact that so many public sector websites have failed to protect themselves and their visitors against the inventive methods of the tracking industry clearly demonstrates the educational challenge that the wider web faces: How can any organisation live up to its GDPR and ePrivacy obligations if it does not control unauthorised tracking actors accessing their website?”

Trackers creeping in by the backdoor

On the “inventive methods” front, the report flags how third party javascript technologies — used by websites for functions like video players, social sharing widgets, web analytics, galleries and comments sections — can offer a particularly sneaky route for trackers to be smuggled into sites and apps by the ‘backdoor’.

Cookiebot gives the example of social sharing tool, ShareThis, which automatically adds buttons to each webpage to make it easy for visitors to share information across social media platforms.

The ShareThis social plugin is used by Ireland’s public health service, the Health Service Executive (HSE). And there Cookiebot found it releases trackers from more than 20 ad tech companies into every webpage it is installed on.

“By analysing web pages on HSE.ie, we found that ShareThis loads 25 other trackers, which track users without permission,” it writes. “This result was confirmed on pages linked from search queries for “mortality rates of cancer patients” and “symptoms of postpartum depression”.”

“Although website operators like the HSE do control which 3rd parties (like ShareThis) they add to their websites, they have no direct control over what additional “4th parties” those 3rd parties might smuggle in,” it warns.

We’ve reached out to ShareThis for a response.

Another example flagged by the report is what Cookiebot dubs “YouTube’s Tracking Cover-Up”.

Here it says it found that even when a website has enabled YouTube’s so-called “Privacy-enhanced Mode”, in a bid to limit its ability to track site users, the mode “currently stores an identifier named “yt-remote-device -id” in the web browser’s “Local Storage”” which Cookiebot found “allows tracking to continue regardless of whether users click, watch, or in any other way interact with a video – contrary to Google’s claims”.

“Rather than disabling tracking, “privacy-enhanced mode” seems to cover it up,” they claim. 

Google did not provide an on the record comment regarding that portion of the report.

Instead the company sent some background information about “privacy-enhanced mode” — though its points did not engage at all with Cookiebot’s claim that tracking continues regardless of whether a user watches or interacts with a video in any way.

Overall, Google’s main point of rebuttal vis-a-vis the report’s conclusion — i.e. that even on public sector sites surveillance capitalism is carrying on business as usual — is that not all cookies and pixels are ad trackers. So it’s claim is a cookie ‘signal’ might just be harmless background ‘noise’.

(In additional background comments Google suggested that if a website is running an advertising campaign using its services — which presumably might be possible in a public sector scenario if an embedded YouTube video contains an ad (for example) — then an advertising cookie could be a conversion pixel used (only) to measure the effectiveness of the ad, rather than to track a user for ad targeting.

For DoubleClick cookies on websites in general, Google told us this type of cookie would only appear if the website specifically signed up with its ad services or another vendor which uses its ad services.

It further claimed it does not embed tracking pixels on random pages or via Google Analytics with Doubleclick cookies.)

The problem here is the lack of opacity in the adtech industry which requires users to take ad targeters at their word — and trust that an adtech giant like Google, which makes pots of money off of tracking web users to target them with ads, has nonetheless built perfectly privacy-respecting, non-leaky infrastructure that operates 100% as separately and cleanly as claimed, even as the entire adtech industry’s business incentives are pushing in the opposite direction.

Also a problem: Certain adtech giants having a long and storied history of bundling purposes for user data and manipulating consent in privacy-hostile ways.

And with trust in adtech at such a historic low — plus regulation having been rebooted in Europe to put the focus on enforcement (which is encouraging a cottage industry of GDPR ‘compliance’ services to wade in) — the industry’s preferred cloak of complex opacity is under attack on multiple front (including from policymakers) and does look to be on borrowed time.

And as more light shines in and risk steps up, sensitive public sector websites could just decide to nix using any of these freebie plugins.

In another “inventive” case study highlighted by the report, Cookiebot writes that it documented instances of Facebook using a first party cookie workaround for Safari’s intelligent tracker blocking system to harvest user data on two Irish and UK health landing pages.

So even though Apple’s browser natively purges third party cookies to enhance user privacy by default Facebook’s engineers appear to have managed to create a workaround.

Cookiebot says this works by Facebook’s new first party cookie — “_fbp” — storing a unique user ID that’s then forwarded as a URL parameter in the pixel tracker “tr” to Facebook.com — “thus allowing Facebook to track users after all”, i.e. despite Safari’s best efforts to prevent pervasive third party tracking.

“In our study, this combined tracking practice was documented on 2 Irish and UK landing pages featuring health information about HIV and mental illness,” it writes. “These types of workarounds of browser tracking prevention are highly intrusive as they undermine users’ attempts to protect their personal data – even when using browsers and extensions with the most advanced protection settings.”

Reached for a response to the Cookiebot report Facebook also did not engage with the case study of its Safari third party cookie workaround.

Instead, a spokesman sent us the following line: “[Cookiebot’s] investigation highlights websites that have chosen to use Facebook’s Business Tools — for example, the Like and Share buttons, or the Facebook pixel. Our Business Tools help websites and apps grow their communities or better understand how people use their services. For example, we could tell them that their site is most popular among people aged 20-25.”

In further information provided to us on background the company confirmed that data it receives from websites can be used for enhancing ad targeting on Facebook. (It said Facebook users can switch off ad personalization based on such signals — via the “Ads Based on Data from Partners” setting in Ad Preferences.)

It also said organizations that make use of its tools are subject to its Business Tools terms — which Facebook said require them to provide users with notice and obtain any required legal consent, including being clear with users about any information they share with it. 

Facebook further claimed it prohibits apps and websites from sending it sensitive data — saying it takes steps to detect and remove data that should not be shared with it.

ePrivacy Regulation needed to raise the bar

Commenting on the report in a statement, Diego Naranjo, senior policy advisor at digital rights group EDRi, called for European regulators to step up to defend citizens’ privacy.

For the last 20 years, Europe has fought to regulate the sprawling chaos of data tracking. The GDPR is a historical attempt to bring the information economy in line with our core civil liberties, securing the same level of democratic control and trust online as we take for granted in our offline world. Yet, as this study has provided evidence of, nine months into the new regulation, online tracking remains as hidden, uncontrollable, and plentiful as ever,” he writes in the report. “We stress that it is the duty of regulators to ensure their citizens’ privacy.”

Naranjo also warned that another EU privacy regulation, the ePrivacy Regulation — which is intended to deal directly with tracking technologies — risks being watered down.

In the wake of GDPR it’s become the focus of major lobbying efforts, as we’ve reported before.

“One of the great added values of the ePrivacy Regulation is that it is meant to raise the bar for companies and other actors who want to track citizens’ behaviour on the Internet. Regrettably, now we are seeing signs of the ePrivacy Regulation becoming watered out, specifically in areas concerning “legitimate interest” and “consent”,” he warns.

“A watering down of the ePrivacy Regulation will open a Pandora’s box of more and more sharing, merging and reselling of personal data in huge online commercial surveillance networks, in which citizens are being unwittingly tracked and micro-targeted with commercial and political manipulation. Instead, the ePrivacy Regulation must set the bar high in line with the wishes of the European Parliament, securing that the privacy of our fellow citizens does not succumb to the dominion of the ad tech industry.”


Source: TechCrunch

YC-backed Basement is a social network for close friends only

The past few years have been a bit of a dark age for budding social media startups. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snap and messenger apps took up all the time of their users, leaving little room for yet another social media platform.

But the tide is shifting. Privacy scandals have shaken some users’ faith giants like Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, and users have grown fatigued by the constant onslaught of #content.

Basement, a YC-backed startup, is looking to give users a new, simpler social network.

Basement allows users to only add up to 20 friends on the network. Cofounders Fernando Rojo and Jeremy Berman said they waited around for someone to build something like Basement after seeing their own friend groups migrate most of their communication to messenger apps from Facebook and other social networks.

On Basement, there are no filters or influencers. The hope is that users share with the people they actually want to share with.

It uses a feed-based system for sharing, letting users share content to their 20 friends. Users can also share to a smaller group of friends by tagging them, which limits the viewership to only mutual friends of those tagged.

Users who are friends can see one another’s comments on a mutual friend’s post. However, comments left by non-friends will always appear anonymous.

Alongside the main feed, Basement also has a meme feed, letting users choose from the internet’s top trending memes to share to their friend group.

Processed with VSCO with f2 preset

Of course, Basement isn’t the first startup to try out the idea of a close-friends social network. Path was founded by Shawn Fanning and Dave Morin in 2010, giving users a photo-sharing and messaging platform that maxed out at 50 friends.

The network grew in the face of competition from Facebook, and at peak had around 50 million users. In fact, Path was raising money at a valuation of $500 million and turned down a $100 million offer from Google in its early months.

But it failed to retain talent, users and momentum. (A controversial privacy scandal in 2012 didn’t help.) In 2015, Path sold to Kakao for an undisclosed amount and was shut down for good just last year.

Rojo and Berman believe timing is more in their favor than it was with Path, but are also targeting a different audience. Whereas Path was aimed both at close friends and family, Basement wants to position itself squarely with young people who are already spending their time in meme-laden group chats.

“One of the challenges is that growth isn’t necessarily as inherently explosive in a micro-network as it would be with a broader social network,” said Rojo. “What’s exciting to us is that if anyone tries to spark up something similar to this, they’ll be one or two years behind. It’s harder to grow a micronetwork, but once it’s bigger it’s much more robust because it’s the place where people turn when they want to connect with their close friends.”

What’s more: Basement promises to never run ads on the platform.

The company plans to mimic the WhatsApp business model, giving users their first year free and then charging an inexpensive subscription after that.


Source: TechCrunch

iPad Air 2019 vs. iPad Pro 2018 vs. iPad 2018: How the specs match up – CNET

The new 10.5-inch iPad Air fits snuggly between the 11-inch 2018 Pro and 9.7-inch 2018 iPad. Here’s how they compare.
Source: CNET

5 reasons to apply to compete in Startup Battlefield at Disrupt SF 2019

The search is in full swing for the most innovative, interesting and utterly disruptive early-stage tech startups to compete in Startup Battlefield, our premier pitch competition, at Disrupt San Francisco 2019 on October 2-4. Founders, if you think your startup has the right stuff, then by all means, apply right here, right now.

Not sure whether you should apply? We think it’s a no-brainer, but we’re happy to break it down for you. Buckle up and get ready for five reasons — in reverse order — why you should apply to compete in Startup Battlefield.

5. You have nothing to lose

It won’t cost you a dime to apply or, if you’re selected, to participate in Startup Battlefield. Nada, zip, zilch. Any early-stage startup — from any country, in any vertical — can apply. What’s more, TechCrunch does not charge any fees or take any equity.

4. Maximum exposure

We’re expecting record-breaking crowds at Disrupt SF ’19 with well over 10,000 attendees. Startup Battlefield takes place on the Disrupt Main Stage in front of a panel of elite venture capitalists and a live audience of thousands. That audience includes hundreds of media outlets and eager investors — influencers and dream makers whose interest and coverage hold the potential to change your life and the course of your company. What’s more, we live stream the entire competition around the world to millions of viewers.

3. Free expert pitch coaching

Battlefield teams have just six minutes to pitch and present a live demo to our panel of top VC judges. Following each pitch, the judges engage in a six-minute Q&A with each team. Fear not! Our Battlefield-tested editorial team will work with you extensively until your presentations, demos and business models are, well, pitch perfect.

2. Awesome access

All Startup Battlefield competitors receive prime access to events at Disrupt SF ’19. We’re talking three full days of exhibition space in Startup Alley — at no cost — backstage access, invitations to VIP events and free passes to all future TechCrunch events. It even includes complimentary subscriptions to Extra Crunch, our new editorial offering that provides in-depth content, coverage, products and events designed for our most engaged readers.

You’ll also become part of the Startup Battlefield Alumni Community. This impressive cohort includes the likes of Vurb, Dropbox, Get Around, Cloudflare, Mint and more. To date, 857 Battlefield teams have collectively raised $8.8 billion and produced 108 successful IPOs or acquisitions. Imagine all the networking possibilities in that crowd.

And finally, the top reason to apply for Startup Battlefield is — drum roll please:

1. You could win $100,000

That’s right — the winner of Startup Battlefield scores a $100K equity-free cash infusion. Plus, they’ll hoist the highly sought-after Disrupt Cup, become a media and investor darling and take their business to a whole new level.

Those are five mighty compelling reasons to apply, and we can’t wait to see what we know will be an incredible pool of applicants. It’s not easy choosing from among such a rich field of startups, but we’re up for the challenge and wouldn’t want it any other way.

Startup Battlefield takes place at Disrupt San Francisco 2019 on October 2-4. Don’t miss your chance to launch your startup on a world stage. Apply to compete in the Startup Battlefield today. We hope to see you in October!


Source: TechCrunch

After fourth attack, hacker puts personal records of 26M people up for sale

A serial hacker going by the name of Gnosticplayers is selling the personal data of 26 million people who have been using the services of six different companies from across the world.

The post After fourth attack, hacker puts personal records of 26M people up for sale appeared first on Digital Trends.


Source: Digital trends

123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527528529530531532533534535536537538539540541542543544545546547548549550551552553554555556557558559560561562563564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585586587588589590591592593594595596597598599600601602603604605606607608609610611612613614615616617618619620621622623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667668669670671672673674675676677678679680681682683684685686687688689690691692693694695696697698699700701702703704705706707708709710711712713714715716717718719720721722723724725726727728729730731732733734735736737738739740741742743744745746747748749750751752753754755756757758759760761762763764765766767768769770771772773774775776777778779780781782783784785786787788789790791792793794795796797798799800801802803804805806807808809810811812813814815816817818819820821822823824825826827828829830831832833834835836837838839840841842843844845846847848849850851852853854855856857858859860861862863864865866867868869870871872873874875876877878879880881882883884885886887888889890891892893894895896897898899900901902903904905906907908909910911912913914915916917918919920921922923924925926927928929930931932933934935936937938939940941942943944945946947948949950951952953954955956957958959960961962963964965966967968969970971972973974975976977978979980981982983984985986987988989990991992993994995996997998999100010011002100310041005100610071008100910101011101210131014101510161017101810191020102110221023102410251026102710281029103010311032103310341035103610371038103910401041104210431044104510461047104810491050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701071107210731074107510761077107810791080108110821083108410851086108710881089109010911092109310941095109610971098109911001101110211031104110511061107110811091110111111121113111411151116111711181119112011211122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311541155115611571158115911601161116211631164116511661167116811691170117111721173117411751176117711781179118011811182118311841185118611871188118911901191119211931194119511961197119811991200120112021203120412051206120712081209121012111212121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245124612471248124912501251125212531254125512561257125812591260126112621263126412651266126712681269127012711272127312741275127612771278127912801281128212831284128512861287128812891290129112921293129412951296129712981299130013011302130313041305130613071308130913101311131213131314131513161317131813191320132113221323132413251326132713281329133013311332133313341335133613371338133913401341134213431344134513461347134813491350135113521353135413551356135713581359136013611362136313641365136613671368136913701371137213731374137513761377137813791380138113821383138413851386138713881389139013911392139313941395139613971398139914001401140214031404140514061407140814091410141114121413141414151416141714181419142014211422142314241425142614271428142914301431143214331434143514361437143814391440144114421443144414451446144714481449145014511452145314541455145614571458145914601461146214631464146514661467146814691470147114721473147414751476147714781479148014811482148314841485148614871488148914901491149214931494149514961497149814991500150115021503150415051506150715081509151015111512151315141515151615171518151915201521152215231524152515261527152815291530153115321533153415351536153715381539154015411542154315441545154615471548154915501551155215531554155515561557155815591560156115621563156415651566156715681569157015711572157315741575157615771578157915801581158215831584158515861587158815891590159115921593159415951596159715981599160016011602160316041605160616071608160916101611161216131614161516161617161816191620162116221623162416251626162716281629163016311632163316341635163616371638163916401641164216431644164516461647164816491650165116521653165416551656165716581659166016611662166316641665166616671668166916701671167216731674167516761677167816791680168116821683168416851686168716881689169016911692169316941695169616971698169917001701170217031704170517061707170817091710171117121713171417151716171717181719172017211722172317241725172617271728172917301731173217331734173517361737173817391740174117421743174417451746174717481749175017511752175317541755175617571758175917601761176217631764176517661767176817691770177117721773177417751776177717781779178017811782178317841785178617871788178917901791179217931794179517961797179817991800180118021803180418051806180718081809181018111812181318141815181618171818181918201821182218231824182518261827182818291830183118321833183418351836183718381839184018411842184318441845184618471848184918501851185218531854185518561857185818591860186118621863186418651866186718681869187018711872187318741875187618771878187918801881188218831884188518861887188818891890189118921893189418951896189718981899190019011902190319041905190619071908190919101911191219131914191519161917191819191920192119221923192419251926192719281929193019311932193319341935193619371938193919401941194219431944194519461947194819491950195119521953195419551956195719581959196019611962196319641965196619671968196919701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019202020212022202320242025202620272028202920302031203220332034203520362037203820392040204120422043204420452046204720482049205020512052205320542055205620572058205920602061206220632064206520662067206820692070207120722073207420752076207720782079208020812082208320842085208620872088208920902091209220932094209520962097209820992100210121022103210421052106210721082109211021112112211321142115211621172118211921202121212221232124212521262127212821292130213121322133213421352136213721382139214021412142214321442145214621472148214921502151215221532154215521562157215821592160216121622163216421652166216721682169217021712172217321742175217621772178217921802181218221832184218521862187218821892190219121922193219421952196219721982199220022012202220322042205220622072208220922102211221222132214221522162217221822192220222122222223222422252226222722282229223022312232223322342235223622372238223922402241224222432244224522462247224822492250225122522253225422552256225722582259226022612262226322642265226622672268226922702271227222732274227522762277227822792280228122822283228422852286228722882289229022912292229322942295229622972298229923002301230223032304230523062307230823092310231123122313231423152316231723182319232023212322232323242325232623272328232923302331233223332334233523362337233823392340234123422343234423452346234723482349235023512352235323542355235623572358235923602361236223632364236523662367236823692370237123722373237423752376237723782379238023812382238323842385238623872388238923902391239223932394239523962397239823992400240124022403240424052406240724082409241024112412241324142415241624172418241924202421242224232424242524262427242824292430243124322433243424352436243724382439244024412442244324442445244624472448244924502451245224532454245524562457245824592460246124622463246424652466246724682469247024712472247324742475247624772478247924802481248224832484248524862487248824892490249124922493249424952496249724982499250025012502250325042505250625072508250925102511251225132514251525162517251825192520252125222523252425252526252725282529253025312532253325342535253625372538253925402541254225432544254525462547254825492550255125522553255425552556255725582559256025612562256325642565256625672568256925702571257225732574257525762577257825792580258125822583258425852586258725882589259025912592259325942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826092610261126122613261426152616261726182619262026212622262326242625262626272628262926302631263226332634263526362637263826392640264126422643264426452646264726482649265026512652265326542655265626572658265926602661266226632664266526662667266826692670267126722673267426752676267726782679268026812682268326842685268626872688268926902691269226932694269526962697269826992700270127022703270427052706270727082709271027112712271327142715271627172718271927202721272227232724272527262727272827292730273127322733273427352736273727382739274027412742274327442745274627472748274927502751275227532754275527562757275827592760276127622763276427652766276727682769277027712772277327742775277627772778277927802781278227832784278527862787278827892790279127922793279427952796279727982799280028012802280328042805280628072808280928102811281228132814281528162817281828192820282128222823282428252826282728282829283028312832283328342835283628372838283928402841284228432844284528462847284828492850285128522853285428552856285728582859286028612862286328642865286628672868286928702871287228732874287528762877287828792880288128822883288428852886288728882889289028912892289328942895289628972898289929002901290229032904290529062907290829092910291129122913291429152916291729182919292029212922292329242925292629272928292929302931293229332934293529362937293829392940294129422943294429452946294729482949295029512952295329542955295629572958295929602961296229632964296529662967296829692970297129722973297429752976297729782979298029812982298329842985298629872988298929902991299229932994299529962997299829993000300130023003300430053006300730083009301030113012301330143015301630173018301930203021302230233024302530263027302830293030303130323033303430353036303730383039304030413042304330443045304630473048304930503051305230533054305530563057305830593060306130623063306430653066306730683069307030713072307330743075307630773078307930803081308230833084308530863087308830893090309130923093309430953096309730983099310031013102310331043105310631073108310931103111311231133114311531163117311831193120312131223123312431253126312731283129313031313132313331343135313631373138313931403141314231433144314531463147314831493150315131523153315431553156315731583159316031613162316331643165316631673168316931703171317231733174317531763177317831793180318131823183318431853186318731883189319031913192319331943195319631973198319932003201320232033204320532063207320832093210321132123213321432153216321732183219322032213222322332243225322632273228322932303231323232333234323532363237323832393240324132423243324432453246324732483249325032513252325332543255325632573258325932603261326232633264326532663267326832693270327132723273327432753276327732783279328032813282328332843285328632873288328932903291329232933294329532963297329832993300330133023303330433053306330733083309331033113312331333143315331633173318331933203321332233233324332533263327332833293330333133323333333433353336333733383339334033413342334333443345334633473348334933503351335233533354335533563357335833593360336133623363336433653366336733683369337033713372337333743375337633773378337933803381338233833384338533863387338833893390339133923393339433953396339733983399340034013402340334043405340634073408340934103411341234133414341534163417341834193420342134223423342434253426342734283429343034313432343334343435343634373438343934403441344234433444344534463447344834493450345134523453345434553456345734583459346034613462346334643465346634673468346934703471347234733474347534763477347834793480348134823483348434853486348734883489349034913492349334943495349634973498349935003501350235033504350535063507350835093510351135123513351435153516351735183519352035213522352335243525352635273528352935303531353235333534353535363537353835393540354135423543354435453546354735483549355035513552355335543555355635573558355935603561356235633564356535663567356835693570357135723573357435753576357735783579358035813582358335843585358635873588358935903591359235933594359535963597359835993600360136023603360436053606360736083609361036113612361336143615361636173618361936203621362236233624362536263627362836293630363136323633363436353636363736383639364036413642364336443645364636473648364936503651365236533654365536563657365836593660366136623663366436653666366736683669367036713672367336743675367636773678367936803681368236833684368536863687368836893690369136923693369436953696369736983699370037013702370337043705370637073708370937103711371237133714371537163717371837193720372137223723372437253726372737283729373037313732373337343735373637373738373937403741374237433744374537463747374837493750375137523753375437553756375737583759376037613762376337643765376637673768376937703771377237733774377537763777377837793780378137823783378437853786378737883789379037913792379337943795379637973798379938003801380238033804380538063807380838093810381138123813381438153816381738183819382038213822382338243825382638273828382938303831383238333834383538363837383838393840384138423843384438453846384738483849385038513852385338543855385638573858385938603861386238633864386538663867386838693870387138723873387438753876387738783879388038813882388338843885388638873888388938903891389238933894389538963897389838993900390139023903390439053906390739083909391039113912391339143915391639173918391939203921392239233924392539263927392839293930393139323933393439353936393739383939394039413942394339443945394639473948394939503951395239533954395539563957395839593960396139623963396439653966396739683969397039713972397339743975397639773978397939803981398239833984398539863987398839893990399139923993399439953996399739983999400040014002400340044005400640074008400940104011401240134014401540164017401840194020402140224023402440254026402740284029403040314032403340344035403640374038403940404041404240434044404540464047404840494050405140524053405440554056405740584059406040614062406340644065406640674068406940704071407240734074407540764077407840794080408140824083408440854086408740884089409040914092409340944095409640974098409941004101410241034104410541064107410841094110411141124113411441154116411741184119412041214122412341244125412641274128412941304131413241334134413541364137413841394140414141424143414441454146414741484149415041514152415341544155415641574158415941604161416241634164416541664167416841694170417141724173417441754176417741784179418041814182418341844185418641874188418941904191419241934194419541964197419841994200420142024203420442054206420742084209421042114212421342144215421642174218421942204221422242234224422542264227422842294230423142324233423442354236423742384239424042414242424342444245424642474248424942504251425242534254425542564257425842594260426142624263426442654266426742684269427042714272427342744275427642774278427942804281428242834284428542864287428842894290429142924293429442954296429742984299430043014302430343044305430643074308430943104311431243134314431543164317431843194320432143224323432443254326432743284329433043314332433343344335433643374338433943404341434243434344434543464347434843494350435143524353435443554356435743584359436043614362436343644365436643674368436943704371437243734374437543764377437843794380438143824383438443854386438743884389439043914392439343944395439643974398439944004401440244034404440544064407440844094410441144124413441444154416441744184419442044214422442344244425442644274428442944304431443244334434443544364437443844394440444144424443444444454446444744484449445044514452445344544455445644574458445944604461446244634464446544664467446844694470447144724473447444754476447744784479448044814482448344844485448644874488448944904491449244934494449544964497449844994500450145024503450445054506450745084509451045114512451345144515451645174518451945204521452245234524452545264527452845294530453145324533453445354536453745384539454045414542454345444545454645474548454945504551455245534554455545564557455845594560456145624563456445654566456745684569457045714572457345744575457645774578457945804581458245834584458545864587458845894590459145924593459445954596459745984599460046014602460346044605460646074608460946104611461246134614461546164617461846194620462146224623462446254626462746284629463046314632463346344635463646374638463946404641464246434644464546464647464846494650465146524653465446554656465746584659466046614662466346644665466646674668466946704671467246734674467546764677467846794680468146824683468446854686468746884689469046914692469346944695469646974698469947004701470247034704470547064707470847094710471147124713471447154716471747184719472047214722472347244725472647274728472947304731473247334734473547364737473847394740474147424743474447454746474747484749475047514752475347544755475647574758475947604761476247634764476547664767476847694770477147724773477447754776477747784779478047814782478347844785478647874788478947904791479247934794479547964797479847994800480148024803480448054806480748084809481048114812481348144815481648174818481948204821482248234824482548264827482848294830483148324833483448354836483748384839484048414842484348444845484648474848484948504851485248534854485548564857485848594860486148624863486448654866486748684869487048714872487348744875487648774878487948804881488248834884488548864887488848894890489148924893489448954896489748984899490049014902490349044905490649074908490949104911491249134914491549164917491849194920492149224923492449254926492749284929493049314932493349344935493649374938493949404941494249434944494549464947494849494950495149524953495449554956495749584959496049614962496349644965496649674968496949704971497249734974497549764977497849794980498149824983498449854986498749884989499049914992499349944995499649974998499950005001500250035004500550065007500850095010501150125013501450155016501750185019502050215022502350245025502650275028502950305031503250335034503550365037503850395040504150425043504450455046504750485049505050515052505350545055505650575058505950605061506250635064506550665067506850695070507150725073507450755076507750785079508050815082508350845085508650875088508950905091509250935094509550965097509850995100510151025103510451055106510751085109511051115112511351145115511651175118511951205121512251235124512551265127512851295130513151325133513451355136513751385139514051415142514351445145514651475148514951505151515251535154515551565157515851595160516151625163516451655166516751685169517051715172517351745175517651775178517951805181518251835184518551865187518851895190519151925193519451955196519751985199520052015202520352045205520652075208520952105211521252135214521552165217521852195220522152225223522452255226522752285229523052315232523352345235523652375238523952405241524252435244524552465247524852495250525152525253525452555256525752585259526052615262526352645265526652675268526952705271527252735274527552765277527852795280528152825283528452855286528752885289529052915292529352945295529652975298529953005301530253035304530553065307530853095310531153125313531453155316531753185319532053215322532353245325532653275328532953305331533253335334533553365337533853395340534153425343534453455346534753485349535053515352535353545355535653575358535953605361536253635364536553665367536853695370537153725373537453755376537753785379538053815382538353845385538653875388538953905391539253935394539553965397539853995400540154025403540454055406540754085409541054115412541354145415541654175418541954205421542254235424542554265427542854295430543154325433543454355436543754385439544054415442544354445445544654475448544954505451545254535454545554565457545854595460546154625463546454655466546754685469547054715472547354745475547654775478547954805481548254835484548554865487