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Archivo del Autor: Belen De Leon

Researchers develop emergency ventilator based on resuscitation bags used in ambulances

The need for innovative solutions to address shortages in crucial medical equipment is greater than ever, and a new initiative from a global team of biomedical engineering experts is a perfect example. The team developed a way for resuscitation bags – common pieces of equipment carried by ambulances and paramedics around the world, and typically in strong supply at hospitals – to be repurposed as emergency ventilator hardware.

Georgia Tech and Emory University biomedical engineering professor Susan Margulies, who is an expert in ventilator-associated lung injuries, said in a press release that while it is “heartwarming” to see US manufacturers open-source designs of existing FDA-approved fit-for-purpose ventilators, there’s a need still for a “simple, low-cost design” that can boost the numbers of usable equipment without requiring a manufacturing line spinning up.

The device developed by the group of researchers adapts what’s called a “bag-valve-mask” or BVM for short, resulting in a piece of hardware the can simultaneously work for two patients at the same time. It can be made from stock sheet metal components and plastic gears, and works with common wall adapters or 12-volt car batteries for power sources, making them flexible for use in either permanent care facilities or temporary field hospitals.

Basically, the modification works by squeezing the bags automatically and mechanically, whereas they’d normally be squeezed manually by a paramedic to revive a patient. The mechanized squeezing can continue for days, turning them into a workable (if emergency use only) ventilator for continuous care for COVID-19 patients, when no other ventilator hardware is available.

This design is the result of a collaboration between Cranfield University in the UK, as well as Georgia Tech and Emory University. It’s already been prototyped, tested, and iterated upon, and the team behind the concept is now working to move the design to broader manufacturing in partnership with the Emory University Office of Technology.

The potential of this design is significant in areas where access to resources and modern manufacturing equipment/supply sources for ventilators and other, more complex solutions being developed aren’t as abundant. That’s been flagged as a huge areas of concern by the World Health Organization, as the COVID-19 pandemic has hit developed countries hard, overtaxing even their advanced and well-resourced healthcare systems. Other nations with less mature health systems and fewer resources available to frontline care workers will need alternative solutions to address the crisis.


Source: TechCrunch

Koch Industries closes nearly $13B Infor acquisition

Koch Industries announced today that it has closed on the acquisition of Infor, announced in February. The company never officially announced the purchase price, but sources indicated that it was close to $13 billion, putting it in line to be one of the top 10 enterprise acquisitions this year.

The company will remain an independent subsidiary of Koch, which tends to deal more in manufacturing than software. The goal is to use the resources of Koch to continue to build out the Infor product family with a focus on industry-specific solutions, according to the company.

At the time of the deal in February, CEO Kevin Samuelson certainly saw the potential of having a company with the financial resources of Koch backing his organization.

“As a subsidiary of a $110 billion+ revenue company that re-invests 90% of earnings back into its businesses, we will be in the unique position to drive digital transformation in the markets we serve,” Samuelson said.

As the company pointed out, Infor is helping customers move to the cloud, even in industries like manufacturing, distribution and finance that might otherwise be stuck on legacy systems. This transition to the cloud is becoming even more pressing as companies deal with the COVID-19 crisis and are forced to find creative ways to keep their businesses going, even when many employees can’t come into the office. Having access to applications in the cloud certainly helps ease that burden.

The company counts some of the largest organizations in the world as customers, including 17 of the top 20 global banks, 9 of the 10 largest global hotel brands and 7 of the top 10 global luxury brands

Infor was founded in 2002 and raised over $6 billion along the way, according to PitchBook. Its most recent investment before the acquisition was for $1.5 billion in January 2019.


Source: TechCrunch

Why AI startups’ economics will likely improve over time

Hello and welcome back to our regular morning look at private companies, public markets and the gray space in between.

If you can recall February, we dug into the question of AI startup gross margins. Venture shop a16z had published an interesting blog on the subject, arguing that it may be the case that AI-focused startups will enjoy strong gross margins, but perhaps not as strong as those posted by SaaS companies.

Modern software startups (SaaS companies) have some of the highest gross margins in business, delivering their digital services over the Internet at little cost. Their high-margin revenue has made them incredibly valuable to private and public investors alike. To see a16z draw a line for AI gross margins a little under SaaS, then, was notable. AI startups might earn long-term lower revenue multiples than SaaS firms, and, if so, they might need to adjust their valuation expectations.

Since that nerdy interlude, the world has fallen apart. The United States has accreted over 337,000 COVID-19 cases, the stock markets have fallen sharply and we’re somewhere between a bear market and a recession. Shit, as they say, has changed.

But after our first look at the world of AI margins, asking a number of VCs to weigh in on the matter, we wound up talking to one more VC, David Blumberg of Blumberg Capital, who had some interesting notes on the AI margin matter to share from his portfolio.

Since that conversation, TechCrunch covered Deepgram’s Series A, which brought the subject of AI startups and their margins back into our heads. So, before Q2 really gets under way, a little more on AI and COGS.

AI margins and the future


Source: TechCrunch

Economists haven’t throw out the models yet (but they will)

There are many things that are in short supply these days, but one of them is cognitive flexibility.

Humans are used to confronting the extreme complexity of our modern world with some mélange of data, modeling, heuristics, and “gut instinct.” We can’t know everything about everything, and so we have to truncate our perspective to order the chaos before us. In linear times, that process actually (mostly) works — the economy generally trends one way, and while models and instincts can be a bit off, they are fairly robust to reality.

The novel coronavirus presents us with a novel scenario — one we have never experienced before in the modern, globalized economy. No model and no gut is up to the challenge of evaluating exactly what is going on. Every way we see the world — quite literally everything — has to be rebuilt from scratch.

Take two of the most important leading indicators of economic health that were released last week in the United States: the latest unemployment insurance weekly claims which came out on Thursday, and the employment surveys for March which came out on Friday.

Here is Max Reyes at Bloomberg conveying the predictions of economists before the release of those insurance figures:

The median projection from economists surveyed by Bloomberg puts the figure at 3.5 million, slightly above the prior reading, which was already more than quadruple the previous record.

The real result was 6.6 million — off by a factor of two. Think of how many standard deviations away from the median you have to be to get a number like that.

The real kicker for me though came the next day. The unemployment figures (like many economic statistics) are tricky, for while they are announced the first Friday of each month, their survey period ends more than two weeks prior. So the “March” employment data really represents mid-February to mid-March. Normally, that discrepancy would only be discussed by a bunch of econometricians in a grad seminar, but given the gargantuan changes in the economy these days, that artifact of survey design is suddenly front and center.

Here is Eric Morath in the WSJ summing up the views of economists prior to the release of the statistics:

Economists surveyed by The Wall Street Journal through Monday forecast employers cut 10,000 workers from payrolls and the unemployment rate for March ticked up to 3.7% from 3.5%. Those benign numbers miss mass layoffs announced by restaurants, retailers, manufacturers and others because they occurred in the second half of March, after the survey period.

Morath at the end of a previous article gets at the challenge:

Possible outcomes for the March report are unusually wide. Surveyed economists are forecasting a range of employers adding 312,000 jobs to shedding 1.25 million. Some expect the unemployment rate to hold at a 50-year low, others project it will rise above 5%.

“No forecasting models are built to deal with the unique situation we have,” said Brad Hershbein, an economist at the Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. “There’s tremendous uncertainty.”

And indeed, Hershbein was right, because the median was wildly off:

Payrolls decreased by 701,000 jobs in March, the Labor Department said Friday, as efforts to contain the virus disrupted the U.S. economy [and] The unemployment rate for March rose to 4.4% from 3.5% in February, the largest one-month increase in the rate since January 1975.

10,000 versus 701,000.

One of the hardest parts for experts — and the press — is how to convey the sheer level of uncertainty in the market these days. A range of +312,000 to -1.25M is not a range — it’s every possible reality under the sun (that said, the economist(s) who predicted hundreds of thousands of new jobs in the midst of a global pandemic should probably stop going to the dispensary and shelter in place).

In the startup world, the most common refrain I get from VCs is “I don’t know.” That’s actually healthy, as no one knows what the market is going to do next week, let alone three months or two years out. While there are a variety of scenarios that are reasonable, those scenarios are often so incompatible that it creates analysis paralysis.

Will travel pick up in two years due to pent-up demand, or will we see a long-term secular decline in exploring the world? Will retail be radioactive, or will the novel coronavirus clear away a bunch of deadwood shops and reset the retail landscape, making it among the most dynamic sectors of the economy this coming decade?

No one knows. All that data and all those models, heuristics, and instincts can give you some perspective, but they are just as likely to prevent you from seeing the new world as they are to help you understand it.

Dividends versus share buybacks

Cognitive inflexibility isn’t just a problem among experts — everyday consumers and retail investors are just as susceptible.

Top banks around the world are reconsidering their dividends as they think through reserve requirements and their own lending needs. That doesn’t sit well with some investors:

A group of Hong Kong-based retail investors who own 2% of HSBC Holdings’ shares are demanding a scrip dividend [equity dividend] in place of the cash distribution that was canceled by the bank for the first time in 74 years under pressure from U.K. regulators, and are threatening to mobilize to force a special shareholders’ meeting.

Shoring up and maintaining faith in the banking system is absolutely critical for the long-term health of these finance stocks. So a short-term dividend could very well come at the cost of nothing less than the complete collapse in value of the underlying asset.

Yet, the signals of a dividend are so strong that banks are willing to overlook their own financial health in order to not send a bad signal to the market. Richard Henderson at the Financial Times writes this morning about the negative outlook for dividends in the futures markets:

Dividends are a marker of financial stability for listed companies that try to raise payouts year after year, and which are typically penalised by investors when they fail to do so. The steady growth of dividends contrasts with the recent explosive growth of share buybacks, which are seen as a more flexible way to hand money back, as programmes can be paused or scrapped without much fanfare.

“You don’t want to cut dividends because it’s a really bad signal,” said Mr Velis. “Once you’ve established your dividend you only cut in extreme circumstances.”

“You only cut in extreme circumstances.” But apparently a massive health emergency is not an extreme circumstance. Stability is so important in fact, that banking executives are plowing ahead as if nothing in the world has changed:

Meanwhile, Morgan Stanley chief James Gorman told CNBC that suspending dividends would be a “very poor thing to do” and would be “destabilising”, while Citigroup boss Mike Corbat told the same channel the bank’s dividend was “sound and we intend to keep paying it”.

In a linear world, such a heuristic probably makes sense — stable companies should have stable dividends. But given the current situation, you can see why companies might need to take a step back from shoveling cash out the door. And yet they don’t … locked into a model of the past and not thinking about how to navigate the future.

These are novel times, and we need to recognize the limitations of the heuristics, models and all the other cognitive apparatuses that we use to make sense of the world. And then we need to throw them away. This is not a time to double down on what we learned 15 years ago about how the economy functions. This is an opportunity to rebuild our way of thinking for the long haul.


Source: TechCrunch

The Defense Production Act Won’t Fix America’s N95 Face Mask Shortage

The Trump administration put off using the DPA for weeks. Now it may be too late to help secure N95 masks where they’re needed most.
Source: Wired

The Deliciously Surprising Science of Taste

That famous map of the tongue, with the different sections for bitter, sweet, salty, and sour? Way wrong. Here’s the fascinating truth.
Source: Wired

Asus Chromebook Flip C436 review: Chromebooks have grown up

The Asus Chromebook Flip C436 proves that Chrome OS 2-in-1s can be just as well-built as Windows 10 alternatives.
Source: Digital trends

Samsung Galaxy Chromebook Review: Flying High

The Galaxy Chromebook has everything you could ever want in a laptop based on the Chrome browser.
Source: Wired

This Map Shows the Global Spread of Zero-Day Hacking Techniques

The collection of countries using those secret hacking techniques has expanded far beyond the usual suspects.
Source: Wired

Trello y Asana se cuelan en las casas para planificar tareas familiares

El confinamiento y el cierre de colegios ha hecho que cada vez más padres recurran a aplicaciones de gestión de proyectos para controlar los deberes y actividades de sus hijos, y la gestión de tareas domésticas con sus parejas. El coronavirus ha dado inicio a la transformación digital de la administración de los hogares
Source: MIT

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